Correlating Measured Sections at White Bluffs, WA
I took a swing at correlating 26 of Kevin Lindsey's stratigraphic columns from White Bluffs (Lindsey, 1996, Appendix A). A couple day's work in Adobe Illustrator. My goal was to illustrate what he documented and to see if I could identify any trends relating to soil intervals (paleosols) and soft sediment deformation. Lindsey's detailed descriptions and sketches are broken up, paginated, and hidden in the back of an excellent report on the Ringold. His info deserves to be displayed properly...or at least in color.
A few observations...
a.) Deformed Sediments. Soft sediment deformation occurs in 5 zones, always in lacustrine-sluggish fluvial-paleosol sediments of the Savage Island Member (a broad, low-relief floodplain). While reasonable to speculate about a potential earthquake origin (seismites), field inspection of the same strata at two dozen other nearby locations confirms the deformation is syn-sedimentary. The contorted beds do not appear to have been created by recurring earthquakes generated by Yakima Fold Belt faults. Green lines follow SSD horizons, lettered A through E in the figure above. Downloadable PDF is below.
b.) Diatomite. Diatomite occurs at flooding surfaces (lake deepenings). Three lake fillings are floored by paleosol sequences and sometimes diatomite. Thin diatomite beds are basically shallow water indicators; shallow water paleosols. Diatomite is typically associated with warm, shallow, isolated Miocene lakes near George, WA. But diatomite lakes formed in the Pliocene, too. Off-channel lakes that seasonally dried to playas it would seem. They still actively mine diatomite near the summit of Frenchman Hills (IMERYS, Inc).
c.) Pleistocene Calcrete and Older Carbonate Cements. Calcrete is well developed in Early to Middle Pleistocene sediments and atop the post-Ringold unconformity. But carbonate cements also occur at deeper levels of the Ringold, in Pliocene strata. Cementation there is either a product of diagenesis (groundwater) or a signal a dryland climate (calcic soil formation in upland soils). The timing of first arrival of primary carbonate cementation is of interest to me. Did the global Pliocene climate make Eastern Washington dry or are dry conditions a local phenomenon (a Cascades rain shadow)? When did the Cascades grow tall enough to cast a rain shadow east? Was the Pliocene rise of the Cascades coincident with a global climate shift?
d.) Nodular Loess. Red, nodular, sandy loess was deposited in the Ringold basin between lake fillings. The loess sometimes grades laterally to fine grained sandstone - an upland to lowland transition?. Its distinctive nodular texture is the product of burrowing cicadas (dry upland hillslopes, above the water table). Gary Smith noted nodular loess in the Miocene-Pliocene Ellensburg Fm near Naches, WA. I recently found cicada-burrowed red silt mapped as "Ellensburg Fm" along Lander Road at Selah, WA and at Houghton Rd in the Rattlesnake Hills. So the Ringold contains Pliocene loess and Pliocene cicada (i.e., sagebrush steppe after ~5 Ma).
e.) Pliocene Loess. Lots of people have written about the Palouse Loess, which is Pleistocene in age and mostly studied near Pullman, WA. No one talks about loess in the Pliocene. But it was there. It still is. Eastern Washington's dust-generating system was operating long before glacial times. Pliocene climate was about as close to today's climate as you get and there's no shortage of wind or dust today. During the last Ice Age, the supply of fine grained sediment got cranked up to eleven due to the megafloods, which deposited their sediment loads all over south-central Washington. Dump a bunch of silt and sand on the landscape and you'll soon find piles of thick loess downwind. But a sizeable dust source was present in the Pliocene, too. A fluctuating Ringold lake inundated and retreated from wide swaths of desiccated ground, leaving behind plenty of free silt. The challenge to geologists today involves preservation. Nearly all Pliocene strata in the region is bottomland and basin-fill deposits, which are too wet for loess. Upland paleosols - soil intervals between fillings of the Ringold lake - are the exception. That's where the loess is. That's where geologists should be looking. Do Pliocene loess paleosols look any different than their Pleistocene counterparts? Whatever the answer, it won't be found in Pullman.
Here's a PDF of the figure above. Please credit me if you redistribute it.
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UW Professor Eric Cheney and I visited the White Bluffs in 2019. An enjoyable outing and the inspiration that has kept me exploring strata on either side of the Pliocene-Pleistocene boundary since.
Soft sed def and graffiti by Deb.
Deformation consistently associated with paleosol intervals in the Ringold. This location is north of Saddle Mountains.
Green-gray wetland soils and reddish upland soils formed during low water periods in the Ringold lake basin. The red unit contains cicada burrows. White Bluffs Overlook.
Lindsey, K.A., 1996, The Miocene to Pliocene Ringold Formation and associated deposits of the ancestral Columbia River system, south-central Washington and north-central Oregon: Washington Division of Geology and Earth Resources Open-File Report 96-8, 176 pgs + Appendix.