Sheeted Clastic Dikes in the Megaflood Region
Here is a reprint of an article I published in Northwest Geology v. 49 in August 2020. Northwest Geology is the annual volume of the Tobacco Root Geological Society (trgs.org). I've made a few fixes that were not included in the original printed version due to editorial time constraints. Figures and photos have been added to this online version. I update and improve the article from time to time as new information becomes available. First posted here 15 Sept 2020.
UPDATED: 3 July 2022
Sheeted Clastic Dikes in the Megaflood Region, WA-OR-ID-MT
Skye W. Cooley
Clastic dikes are sediment-filled fractures found worldwide in deformed sediments from the Precambrian to the Pleistocene. Most are soft sediment deformation features and the products of liquefaction caused by seismic shaking. The dikes described in this article are vertically sheeted and have other characteristics that contrast with typical liquefaction dikes. This study investigated unconsolidated sediments along the path of the Ice Age megafloods between Priest River, ID and The Dalles, OR and found clastic dikes in 282 of 529 exposures (as of April 2022). Dike distribution, width, relative age, and association with syndepositional deformation indicate the dikes are nonseismic structures formed by rapid loading and hydrofracture during glacial outburst floods. They are flood injectites, not seismites. This study is the first to systematically map and measure large numbers of sheeted clastic dikes at a regional scale (>25,000 km2) in the Inland Pacific Northwest.
Sheeted clastic dike. A vertically-sheeted clastic dike intrudes silty-sandy late Pleistocene megaflood rhythmites (Touchet Beds) at Smith Hollow Rd in the Tucannon Valley, WA.
Olaf P. Jenkins was the first geologist to report on the clastic dikes in the Columbia Basin. This 1923 photo shows him standing next to a large dike exposed in a gravel pit near Touchet, WA. The caption reads, "Clastic dikes in Touchet Beds and dust dune between Touchet and Walla Walla". Source: Washington Geological Survey Archives (#00604)
Touchet Beds exposed in Burlingame Canyon. Many geologists have visited this classic locality near Lowden, WA. About 40 Touchet Beds are exposed here (Waitt, 1980, 1985). These same rhythmically-bedded sediments are widely distributed across the greater Columbia Basin (the megaflood region). Elsewhere, slackwater deposits appear in thinner packages with greater sedimentologic variability, reflecting the local flow conditions and valley configurations. Interesting that Waitt in his highly detailed description of the rhythmites here hardly mentioned the numerous large, conspicuous clastic dikes cutting the entire section. Data that forms the basis of the article below was collected from all of the well known sites, Burlingame Canyon included, and from hundreds of others, many of which have not previously been described (or even visited). Photo source: Washington Geological Survey Archives (1978, #3455). See Footnote 5.
Way out west. Comparison of the Columbia Basin (downward-injected clastic dikes) to the New Madrid Seismic Zone (upward-vented sand blows). Columbia Basin dikes also occur in the Willamette Valley, OR as far south as Salem (not shown). Several USGS careers have been dedicated to studying liquefaction features in the New Madrid region (Fuller, 1912; Obermeier and others, 2005). No careers have been dedicated to clastic dikes in the larger Columbia Basin. Relief basemap by USGS.
Seismic hazard map. Earthquake hazard probability map based on 2018 USGS models. The models are based fault-slip rates, frequency, and magnitude. Red is high probability. Note the contrast between Columbia Basin (low) the New Madrid Fault Zone (high).
Clastic dikes in megaflood deposits are noted in classic papers on Channeled Scablands geology (Bretz, 1929; Baker, 1973; Waitt, 1985; Smith, 1993; Atwater, 1986), but reports containing detailed descriptions of the dikes are few (Jenkins, 1925; Lupher, 1944; Black, 1979; Woodward-Clyde Associates, 1981), especially those containing field measurements (Alwin and Scott, 1970; Cooley and others, 1996; Neill and others, 1997; Ward and others, 2006). Several articles mention the dikes in passing and speculate on their origin, but contain little data (Flint, 1938; Newcomb, 1962; Bingham and Grolier, 1966; Jones and Deacon, 1966; Beaulieu, 1974; Carson and others, 1978; Shaw and others, 1999; Fecht and others, 1999; Pritchard and Cebula, 2016). Seventy years of reporting on Pleistocene deposits at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford waste storage site (1,518 km2) provides no clarity on the dikes’ origin. Voluminous Hanford literature contains few field measurements and ample speculation, much of it contradictory with respect to dike origin (i.e., Bjornstad, 1980; Bjornstad and others, 1990, 2001; Bjornstad and Teel, 1993; Fecht and others, 1999; Bjornstad, 2006, Bjornstad and Lanigan, 2007). See Footnote 1.
Four origins for the dikes have been proposed: earthquakes (Jenkins, 1925), ground ice (Alwin and Scott, 1970; Black, 1979), desiccation (Lupher, 1944), and floodwater loading (Brown and Brown, 1962; Baker, 1973). A dubious fifth, “multigenetic” (Black, 1979; Fecht and others, 1999), suggests the dikes formed by a combination of these processes. Cooley (2015) provides a concise summary of the arguments for and against each hypothesis.
I investigated unconsolidated sediments along the path of the Ice Age megafloods between Priest River, ID and The Dalles, OR (Figure 1). Clastic dikes with vertically sheeted fills were identified in 282 of 529 exposures (as of April 2022). Locations where soft sediment deformation was abundant were also recorded (starred locations on map). Dikes observed throughout the study area are identical with respect to sedimentology, age, structure, taper direction, and scale. All appear to have formed by the same mechanism during the Pleistocene. See Footnote 2.
Figure 1. Study area map.
Locations with sheeted clastic dikes are shown as black circles. White circles denote locations where no dikes were observed. Stars denote locations with abundant soft sediment deformation. Star symbols are offset from outcrop circles for clarity. A dashed line approximates the Cordilleran Ice Sheet margin at LGM. Glacial Lake Columbia is shown at its 600 m elevation shoreline. Sediments observed at all locations (n = 488 shown on map) consist primarily of unconsolidated Pleistocene-age flood and non-flood silts, sands, and gravels with mixed Neogene sediments and bedrock exposed at a few locations. Light gray areas show the extent of ephemeral slackwater lakes Lewis, Condon, Latah, Upper Columbia, and Foster that formed behind bedrock or ice constrictions (black bars A,B,C,D,E). Dikes are common in southern part of the Channeled Scablands, where silty, sandy rhythmites were deposited. Dikes are sparse in gravel-dominated deposits in the Channeled Scablands and absent from Palouse Loess and lacustrine silts of the Glacial Lake Missoula basin. More sites have been added.
Typical Clastic Dikes
Clastic dikes are sediment-filled fractures found worldwide in deformed sediments from the Precambrian to the Holocene. Most clastic dikes in the sedimentary record are soft sediment deformation features (ductile deforamtion) and the products of liquefaction/fluid escape caused by seismic shaking. Strong shaking elevates pore fluid pressures in wet, unconsolidated sediment, causing it to mobilize and vent to the ground surface, forming sand blows. Therefore, most earthquake-generated clastic dikes have upward-tapering forms, contain massive sandy fills, and serve as feeder conduits to sand blows.
Sheeted Injectites in the Ice Age Floodway
The clastic dikes described here are different. They are slender, sheeted, wedge-shaped structures that were filled from the top (Figure 2). They formed by the forceful infilling of hydraulic fractures propagated downward into sedimentary and bedrock substrates during periods when glacial outburst floods inundated large portions of the Inland Northwest (Figure 3). Injection style and timing are consistent with overloading and deformation by catastrophic glacial outburst floods and deep, slow-draining slackwater lakes that accompanied them, >200 m deep in places.
Figure 2. Examples of typical sheeted clastic dikes and flute casts.
(A) A typical clastic dike in slackwater rhythmites (Touchet Beds) exhibits the characteristic vertical sheeting composed of darker fill bands (sheets) separated by light-colored silt skin partitions. This example contains ~12 sheets and is filled with silty, sandy sediment closely resembling the host material. Umatilla Basin at Cecil, OR (Slackwater Lake Condon). (B) A typical dike in gravelly deposits is truncated at its top by a second floodbed. Its fill is crudely sheeted and lacks silt skins. Dikes in coarse-grained deposits tend to have lower length-to-width ratio than dikes in fine-grained sediments. Umatilla Basin at Willow Creek, OR (Slackwater Lake Condon). (C) Examples of flute casts that ornament the faces of silt skins. Upward-pointing noses are clear directional indicators. Sediment entered the fractures from the top. Quarters for scale. Walla Walla Valley, WA (Slackwater Lake Lewis). (D) A sheeted dike, filled with a mix of silty, sandy flood sediment (Late Pleistocene) and quartzite-rich gravel from the Ellensburg Fm eroded from local exposures by floodwaters, intrudes micaceous, oxidized fluvial sandstones (Miocene) at Snipes Mountain. The dike contains ~10 sheets. Hoe is 28 cm long. Emerald Road at Granger, WA (Slackwater Lake Lewis).
(a) Size - Sheeted dikes penetrate more than a dozen different geologic units, including Miocene basalt. The largest examples contain >100 vertical sheets (fill bands), are >2 m wide, and penetrate to depths >40 m. Typically, the dikes are <15 cm wide and contain fewer than a dozen sheets.
(b) Sedimentary Fill - Sedimentology of the fill material reflects the local geology. Dike fills contain a mix of micaceous sandy sediment carried within floods (suspended-load) and coarser bed-load material eroded from localities along the floodway. For example, dikes at Snipes Mountain, WA (Yakima Valley) contain clasts from the Miocene–Pliocene Ellensburg Fm. Dikes at Foster Creek (upper Columbia Valley) contain gruss shed from granitic highlands to the north. Dikes in the Walla Walla Valley contain Touchet Bed sediment (Jenkins, 1925; Cooley, 2015) and, in places, overprint an older (pre-Wisconsin) dike set with weathered, oxidized fills (Spencer and Jaffee, 2002; Bader and others, 2016).
(c) Sheeting and Growth - The dikes are conspicuously sheeted “composite” structures (sensu Hyashi, 1966). Vertical sheeting records incremental widening by repeated crack-and-fill cycles. Dike growth involved crack-and-fill cycling during single events (compound dikes) and reinjection over time (composite dikes). New fractures opened into and alongside older ones. Strong grain size contrasts between adjacent sheets are evidence of a variable and changing sediment source consistent with circulating bottom currents within floods.
(d) Polygonal Networks - Bladed cutslopes that expose dikes in plan view (i.e., Silver and Pogue, 2002) reveal how dikes lengthened and how fill bands coalesced and intertwined to form polygonal networks. Large, well-developed polygonal networks, comprised of large dikes containing many sheets, occur in certain low elevation basins inundated dozens of times. Sheet counts are highest where many floods gathered. The largest dikes and those that contain the most sheets occur in slackwater basins near Wallula Gap, through which all floods flowed.
(e) Silt Skins - Thin silt partitions (silt skins) form the dike walls separate sheets of sediment inside the dikes. Silt skins form when pore water migrates laterally out of the saturated fill, through the fracture wall, and into the surrounding material. Skins between sheets indicate younger fills dewatered into older, drier fills. Fines are screened at fracture walls and accumulate in continuous layers (filter cake), sealing the fracture. Crack sealing begins almost immediately after the fill enters the fracture. The same filter-screening process forms slurry walls in concrete-filled trench foundations used in heavy construction. Silt skins in study area dikes are 1–10 mm thick. Sheet injection is commonly erosive. New sheets crosscut older fill bands and remove portions of their silt seals (rip-ups in dike fills), exposing older fill to new leakoff. Flute casts that ornament the faces of silt skins record downward infill (Figure 2c). Skins that line the outer walls of dikes are fluted only on their interior faces. Skins that form outer walls indicate the host sediment was well-drained, ice-free, and above the water table (in the vadose zone) at the time of the first injection and probably during all subsequent fillings. Skin formation appears to require unsaturated conditions and porous material. Dikes that penetrate impermeable bedrock lack exterior skin walls, but contain interior partitions.
(f) Distribution - The dikes are widely distributed throughout the region inundated by Ice Age floods. Great distances separate outcrops containing nearly identical features. For example, more than 500 km separates my northernmost site near Kettle Falls, WA from the southernmost site known to contain dikes at Salem, OR (Ian Madin, photos and written communication). Sheeted dikes reported by Glenn (1965) in late Pleistocene Willamette silt along the Willamette River are identical to those in northeastern Washington. Sheeted dikes intruding Willamette silt (Touchet Bed-equivalent deposits) were discovered in the basement of the Oregon Capitol Building during a recent remodel (Ray Wells, photos and written communication). Dikes do not occur in the Palouse Loess above the local elevation of maximum flooding (trimlines), nor in unconsolidated sediments beyond the margins of the floodway. Dikes occur in close proximity to active Quaternary faults (i.e., Wallula fault zone) and at sites located >150 km from them. They are most abundant, well-formed, and best-exposed in high silt content flood rhythmites in protected backwater valleys adjacent to high-energy flood coulees. Silty, sandy rhythmites contain dikes that are commonly long and slender. Coarse sands and gravels (little silt) contain few dikes. Dikes in flood gravels are typically crudely sheeted and stubby (low length-to-width ratio) (Figure 4). Where slender sheeted dikes occur in coarse-grained host sediments (or bedrock), silty-sandy rhythmites always occur above.
(g) Age - Field relationships constrain the timing of dike injection to between ~1.8 Ma to ~14 ka, the period of ice sheet growth and scabland flooding in Washington (Easterbrook, 1994; Baker and others, 2016; Waitt and others, 2016). However, most injections occurred late, during the Missoula flood cycle (18–14 ka). The dikes penetrate all formations exposed to Ice Age megafloods (Figure 5), including various Late Wisconsin Missoula flood deposits, pre-Late Wisconsin scabland deposits (“ancient” flood gravels, silt diamicts, paleosols), calcrete-capped Pliocene–Pleistocene alluvium ("Cold Creek unit"), Pliocene Ringold Fm sediments, Miocene–Pliocene Ellensburg/Latah Fm sediments and interbeds, and several Miocene Columbia River Basalt flows. The dikes cut the Mount St. Helens Set S tephra (16 ka), but not the Mazama Ash (6.8 ka). No dikes were found in Holocene deposits during this study and I am aware of no other studies reporting sheeted dikes in Holocene alluvium. Sheeted dikes did not form prior to the Pleistocene or since.
Figure 3. Conceptual sketches comparing liquefaction dikes to injection dikes.
(A) The sketch illustrates differences between clastic dikes formed by liquefaction (sand blows, fluid escape structures) and those formed by floodwater loading and hydrofracture (flood injectites). Liquefaction dikes propagate upward and are sourced in wet, sandy beds deposited sometime in the past and remobilized by strong shaking. Flood injectites are filled hydrofractures that propagate downward and are filled by sediment sourced in circulating bottom currents of glacial outburst floods (megafloods). Dikes at left cut younger strata and are filled with older sediment. Dikes at right cut older strata and are filled with younger sediment. (B) Generations concept sketch explains formation of sheeted clastic dikes in aggrading flood sediments. The four examples represent the typical range of forms found in the study area (single-fill, multi-fill compound, and multi-fill composite).
Figure 4. Dike abundance and geometry differs in slackwater rhythmites & flood gravels.
(A) Dike forms differ because fine and coarse materials respond differently to floodwater loads. Grain size governs whether pore fluid pressures will build or disperse, and whether fractures or collapses will form. (B) Dike injection appears to be primarily a slackwater phenomenon due to the necessary combination of silt deposition (low-velocity flows during megaflood events), overloading (deep water), and preservation (low erosion). (C) High-silt-content rhythmites (Touchet Beds) contain abundant clastic dikes with high length-to-width ratios (slender dikes). Sparse dikes in gravelly flood deposits (channel, bar, and sheet flood gravels) are typically stubby and crudely sheeted.
Evidence of Pleistocene to Holocene liquefaction in the study area is sporadic and confined to tight corridors along some Yakima Fold Belt structures. Foundation Sciences (1980) reported finding minor liquefaction features in the Wallula fault zone at Finley Quarry near Pasco, WA. The blobby, irregularly shaped features are small, trend with bedding. Their liquefaction origin (Sherrod and others, 2016) is disputed (Coppersmith and others, 2014). Steve Angster of USGS continues the work with trenching east of Wallula (SUK trench). Liquefaction was not noted by Bennett and others (2016), who trenched the Burbank Fault near Yakima, WA or by Sherrod and others (2013), who opened trenches in the nearby Wenas Valley.
Dikes in the Ringold Formation
A sparse set of thin, mud-filled dikes intrudes certain fine-grained portions of the Ringold Fm (9.5-3.4 Ma), best exposed in the Pasco and Othello Basins. Those features are rarely thicker than a notebook, are sourced and entirely contained in Pliocene strata, are often associated with a hard white claystone and paleosols, and have not described in detail to date. I interpret the Ringold dikes as incidental features typical of sedimentary units worldwide. They bear little resemblance to sheeted dikes of the Pleistocene set.
Clastic Dikes as Paleoseismic Indicators
Because clastic dikes are so commonly found in deformed sediments in earthquake-prone regions of the world, data on dikes are often included in post-quake damage assessments and seismic hazard reports. Field measurements (width, length, distance from epicenter, etc.) are used to delineate the spatial extent of earthquake damage halos and to construct shake intensity maps. The value of such maps largely depends on the size of the dataset. A small number of measurements or measurements collected within a small area (i.e., a trench) have low value because they lack statistical power and may under-represent the wider effects of shaking. Standardized methods for mapping liquefaction features have been developed by USGS, state geological surveys, and consultants (Gohn and others, 1984; Atwater, 1994; Obermeier, 1996, 2009; Peterson and Madin, 1998; McCalpin, 2009; Holtzer and others, 2011).
Misinterpretation of features and relationships observed in the field can be a problem, especially for inexperienced staff or where exposure is poor. In the absence of quality exposures, familiar explanations and faulty logic are too often employed and can derail an investigation. The misguided notion that all clastic dikes form by liquefaction, therefore all liquefaction features are earthquake-caused, has led some to conclude that all clastic dikes are seismites.
An international conference was called to coordinate proper reporting with respect to the suite of features called seismites (Seilacher, 1969; Montenat and others, 2007; Van Loon, 2014) and illustrates the need for caution (Feng, 2017). It seems “seismite” has for some time been applied too liberally in journal articles to features of nonseismic or ambiguous origin, making reexamination of many "classic" seismite localities necessary. Participating geoscientists reattributed many of the features to nonseismic triggers, most commonly to rapid sedimentation and loading (Moretti and Van Loon, 2014; Shanmugam, 2016 and references therein). The following three quotes express the feelings of participants:
“Nonseismic events can create structures that are virtually indistinguishable from seismically- deformed sediments, or seismites. Therefore, paleoseismologists must correlate candidate seismites over regions and rule out nontectonic origins before concluding that an earthquake occurred.”
– L.B. Grant
“A great progress has been made in researches [SIC] of soft-sediment deformation structures (SSDs) and seismites in China. However, the research thought was not open-minded. About the origin of SSDs, it was almost with one viewpoint, i.e., almost all papers published in journals of China considered the beds with SSDs as seismites. It is not a good phenomenon.”
– Z-Z. Feng
“At present, there are no criteria to distinguish...soft-sediment deformation structures formed by earthquakes from SSDs formed by the other 20 triggering mechanisms...the current practice of interpreting all SSDs as “seismites” is a sign of intellectual indolence.”
– G. Shanmugam
Figure 5. Sheeted clastic dikes in the Channeled Scablands are Pleistocene phenomena.
Sheeted dikes originate in Pleistocene deposits, including both “ancient” flood deposits (>35 ka, pre-Late Wisconsin) and younger Missoula Flood deposits (<35 ka, Late Wisconsin). The vertically sheeted, wedge-shaped structures number in the tens of thousands (a conservative estimate), are visually distinctive, and occur only within the margins of the Ice Age floodway. They penetrate to many meters depth, including to basalt bedrock. Various basalt flows are contain dikes - whatever flow is exposed to overland floods.
Maximum Width Method Inappropriate for Sheeted Clastic Dikes
Liquefaction-extent maps prepared in the wake of damaging earthquakes are based on point data collected in the field, specifically the widths and locations of clastic dikes. The width of the widest dike is recorded at each site and the point data contoured or otherwise summarized cartographically. The “maximum width method” is based on the recognition that seismic shaking is most intense near an epicenter and becomes less intense as energy attenuates radially outward. It follows that large dikes will form in close proximity to the epicenter and wider dikes indicate more lateral spreading. Relationships between maximum dike width and shaking intensity are well established (Ambraseys, 1991; Galli, 2000).
The most well known example of liquefaction feature mapping is perhaps the New Madrid Seismic Zone located in the Mississippi River Valley (Fuller, 1912; Boyd and Schumm, 1995; Obermeier and others, 2005). Magnitude 7.2–8.2 quakes with Modified Mercalli Intensities >VIII struck the region in 1812, toppling structures, disrupting transportation networks, and changing local hydrology. Two earlier events are now recognized as well. Sand blows vented wet sediment to the surface over hundreds of square kilometers. Obermeier (1998), using data from sand blows, successfully demonstrated liquefaction features can be used to determine the approximate location of a paleoepicenter.
But the USGS methodology for sand blows is inappropriate for downward-pinching, sheeted clastic dikes in the megaflood region and elsewhere. The maximum width method assumes dikes are single-fill structures formed during single quakes (e.g., event structures). Measurements on composite (sheeted) dikes would not capture the amount of lateral spreading during the event that formed them, as sand blow measurements do, but the total amount of widening that took decades to millennia to develop quake by quake. The data would describe two entirely different phenomena, reflect two different fracture modes, different geologic environments, and result in entirely different maps. The appropriate measurement, one that provides an apples-to-apples comparison, would be the width of the widest dike at a site (single-fill) vs. the width of the widest sheet in any dike at a site (sheeted). Call this the "Cooley method" if you must.
The seismic potential of the Columbia Basin (<M 7) and the New Madrid Seismic Zone (>M 7) are not comparable. The New Madrid is a failed rift in crystalline basement rocks. The Columbia Basin is a back-arc flood basalt province atop sedimentary and volcanic rocks located outboard of the cratonic margin. Surficial sediments in the New Madrid is Holocene floodplain deposits of the Mississippi River. Surficial cover in Columbia Basin is a mix of Ice Age flood sediments and loess.
Shaking Intensity-Liquefaction Distance Relationships Fail
Shallow, intraplate faults in the study area are believed capable of producing magnitude ~6.5 earthquakes and MMI VII–VIII shaking (Lidke and others, 2003). However, the dikes in the Ice Age floodway are found at distances far beyond the 100–125 km outer limit for soft sediment deformation established by Galli (2000; Figure 6).
An epicenter placed at Finely, WA (Wallula fault zone) is located >280 km from large dikes near Kettle Falls, WA.
An epicenter at Burbank, WA (Umtanum–Gable Mountain fault) is >260 km from large dikes in Lewiston Basin, ID.
An epicenter in the Blue Mountains (Hite Fault) is >265 km from large dikes near Granger, WA in the western Yakima Valley.
An epicenter placed near Arlington, OR (Arlington–Shutler fault zone) is >230 km from dikes in the central Willamette Valley.
Paleoseismic Evidence is Weak
If the dikes are the products of seismic shaking, then one of the Yakima Fold Belt structures would be a likely candidate. However, the dikes are distributed over too large an area for a single YFB fault to be the culprit (Figure 7). If one or more YFB structures (i.e., Saddle Mountains Fault) acted as the trigger, then a recurrent record of seismic shaking would be preserved in Miocene, Pliocene, Pleistocene, and Holocene strata throughout the entire region, not just Pleistocene strata within scabland floodways. Thick Holocene sections in particular, where evidence of strong shaking would be best preserved, are plentiful and accessible (i.e., Valley Grove Rd-Hwy 125 intersection near Walla Walla).
Core logs and other datasets should corroborate the field evidence. Does evidence of repeated strong shaking appear in the hundreds of borehole cores logged at the Hanford Site, in numerous measured sections at White Bluffs, in cores from alpine lakes in the Cascades or Okanogan Highlands, in Missoula flood deposits in offshore ODP cores, in Ellensburg/Latah Fm sections in Kittitas and Yakima Valleys, in Neogene sediments in the Dalles-Umatilla syncline, or in thick sedimentary interbeds in CRBs?
The Stateline earthquake of 1937, centered in the Walla Walla Valley - the quake often used as evidence for strong shaking on OWL faults - was a sub-magnitude 6.0 event that formed no sheeted dikes and caused no damage to speak of beyond the epicenter at Umapine, OR. Shaking produced by a large Puget Sound fault or the Cascadia plate margin, located several hundred kilometers to the west, also seems a far-fetched explanation for the dikes in Eastern Washington. Shaking generated west of the Cascade divide would be greatly attenuated before reaching the Columbia Basin (Peterson and others, 2011; Wood and others, 2014). No evidence of megathrust shaking at 1700 AD (Atwater and others, 2005) is recognized in Eastern Washington. Likewise, no evidence of the 1918 Vancouver Island M 7.2, 1946 Vancouver Island M 7.5, 1949 Olympia M 6.7, or 2001 Nisqually M 6.8 is known in the area. Widespread liquefaction was not reported following the 1872 North Cascades earthquake (~M 7) and its many aftershocks (Milne, 1956; Sherrod and others, 2015) despite vast quantities of silty-sandy glaciofluvial and glaciolacustrine sediments in terraces along the Columbia, Wenatchee, Methow, Okanogan, and Sanpoil Rivers. There were only 6 seismometers in the Pacific Northwest prior to the mid-1960s. Most reports of earthquakes during historical period are from local newpapermen, whose job it is to report the spectacular and sell newspapers.
Evidence of strong, widespread shaking in central Washington, much less an association between seismicity and the dikes, has not been established. Non-seismic factors appear to control where, when, and how the region's sheeted clastic dikes formed. See Footnote 6.
Silt Seals Cracks and Facilitates Hydrofracture
Sand-propped hydrofractures are commonly used in the petroleum industry to stimulate tight gas reservoirs ("fracking"). Hydrofracturing is induced by shutting in the well bore and using pumps to jack up the fluid pressure inside until the formation yields and fluid-driven fractures propagate outward. Pressurized proppant (sand + water + chemicals) immediately fills the fractures and holds them slightly open, permitting hydrocarbons to flow back to the well.
Silt skins appear to have facilitated hydrofracturing of substrates during megaflooding (rapid loading events). Loading by floodwater raised fluid pressure in the formation. Elevated pressure state that lasted for a period of seconds to minutes. Shallow natural weaknesses such as frost cracks, soil macropores, burrows, and joints provide nucleation planes for new fractures. During flooding, some of the weaknesses became fractures that opened a few centimeters and were rapidly filled by sediment. Dewatering (leakoff) forms a silt skin at the dike wall. The entering water-sediment slurry (natural proppant) was sourced from the base of the overriding flood. The skin-sealed crack behaved as a pressure vessel. Continued loading of the sealed fracture raised pore fluid pressures (Pf) inside. The point at which fluid pressure exceeded the confining strength of the formation (Pf > 03), breakout occurred, propagating the fracture tip, and a forming dike in the 01–02 plane (vertical). As the fluid pressure equilibrates to the confining pressure (Pf = 03), the fracture tip halts, the crack completely fills, and pressure begins to build again if flood load is still present. Each breakout causes a forward jump of the fracture tip and temporarily relieves fluid pressures in fractures (volume increase, pressure decrease). This load-crack-fill-seal cycle is responsible for the dikes’ vertically sheeted fabric (Figure 8).
The direction of fracture propagation appears controlled, in part, by the orientation of older sheets and bedding contacts (weakness planes), in part by the vertically-oriented water load, and in part by the orientation of the local fluid pressure gradient during flood loading (downward-tapering dike = inverted pressure gradient). In sand blow systems, by contrast, the pressure gradient is normal and decreases upward, toward the ground surface (free face). Sand blow feeder dikes are filled with sediment escaping from a fluidized layer at depth and pinch upward (normally-oriented pressure gradient).
Diking within a flood seems to occur at two different times. One, at initial onrush of floodwater. Two, during slackwater. Gravelly or sandy dikes are produced by the first. Silty-sandy dikes are produced by the second. Dike injection appears to be primarily a slackwater phenomenon due to the necessary combination of silt deposition (lower-velocity flow), overloading (deep water), and off-channel preservation (low erosion).
Figure 6. Magnitude–distance curves.
Compiled curves from six studies by Galli (2000) show a similar relationship between earthquake magnitude and the distance away from an epicenter at which liquefaction features will form. Faults in the study area are believed capable of generating quakes as large as M6.5 (possibly up to M7.0), which corresponds with an epicentral distance limit of approximately 125 km. Many large dikes in the study area are found at distances greater than 125 km away from Yakima Fold Belt structures, the Hite fault, the Arlington–Shutler fault zone, and the Wallula fault zone. Figure redrawn from Galli (2000).
Nonseismic Analogs to Columbia Basin Dikes
Per descendum clastic dikes that form by rapid overloading and hydrofracture in reports by others appear analogous to features in this study. Sheeted, downward-pinching dikes intrude muddy deposits beneath tidewater glaciers (Von Brunn and Talbot, 1986; Jolly and Lonergan, 2002; Le Heron and Etienne, 2005; Phillips and others, 2013) and in sediments of lakes adjacent to mountain glaciers (Sutherland and others, 2022). Sheeted dikes with prominent silt(?) skins intrude lahar deposits on the side of an Aleutian volcano (Herriott and others, 2014). Dikes formed by hydrofracture propagate downward and laterally out of marine turbidites into channel levees and distal fan-lobe complexes (Braccini and others, 2008; Cobain and others, 2016). Wedge-shaped sand dikes descend from the base of debris flow deposits at Black Dragon Canyon in the San Rafael Swell, UT (Cooley, unpublished field notes and photos; https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Dikes_in_black_dragon_canyon_UT.JPG). In all cases, overloading, rapid sedimentation, and hydrofracture produced clastic dikes with characteristics remarkably similar to those observed in the Columbia Basin.
Field Work Matters
The preceding examples teach a valuable lesson: when working in earthquake country, field projects should be appropriately scaled and employ methods matched to the geologic setting.
Project planning is the responsibility of the paleoseismologist. Paleoseismology is primarily a field-based discipline focused on determining the timing and effects of prehistoric earthquakes. Data gathered in the course of a paleoseismic investigation (fault slip rates, event dates, and shaking effects) are critical inputs to building codes, community planning documents, and land use policies. Data collected in the field inform and often drive policymaking. Unlike technical trench wall logs and tables of recurrence probabilities, maps constructed from field data are easily understood by technical and non-technical audiences alike. They are uniquely influential and readily migrated into land use policy documents, which tend to persist for decades.
Clastic dikes are often ambiguous structures that do not necessarily require earthquakes to form. In fact, dikes are widely reported in a variety of geological settings where nontectonic triggers operate (Shanmugam, 2016). Dikes are threshold features that, if interpreted one way, will brand a landscape as hazardous and unfit for human occupation and industrial development. Interpreted another way, the same dikes become Ice Age relicts of little importance to anyone other than academics and the odd (really odd) megaflood enthusiast. When anchored by evidence gathered at the outcrop, investigations into the origin of clastic dikes tilt toward a correct interpretation. Lab work, office-generated theories, and probability models serve geoscience and society best when they are rooted in and remain subordinate to field data.
Careful, comprehensive field work that involves a sufficient number of outcrops (samples) and a study area scaled to the geological phenomenon under investigation should be de rigueur. Slothful reporting on clastic dikes and other features highlighted by Shanmugan (2015), shoddy work, and methods successfully developed in one region, but uncritically applied to another (i.e., maximum width method on sheeted dikes) are unacceptable practices.
Figure 7. Distances between dike-bearing outcrops and the Wallula fault zone.
Distances from outcrops containing clastic dikes (circles) were measured from an assumed epicenter located on the Wallula fault zone (Wallula Gap). Most dikes occur within 150 km of the assumed epicenter, but many occur at distances far beyond limits established by Galli (2000) for earthquake-caused liquefaction. Outcrops within the 150 km limit are far more numerous than areas beyond and sediments there are thicker and more continuous. Black bars show the span of various subbasins along the Ice Age floodway. Dikes are most abundant in valleys immediately upstream and downstream of Wallula Gap, specifically Walla Walla Valley, Pasco Basin, Umatilla Basin, and Willow Creek Valley. All megafloods flowed through these basins and formed deep, slow-draining slackwater lakes in which thick sections of silty, sandy rhythmites were deposited.
CC = Crab Creek Valley, WA
GT = Gorge Tributary valleys downstream of Wallula Gap, WA-OR
LB = Lewiston Basin, ID
OK = Okanogan Valley, WA
PB = Pasco Basin, WA
RP = Rathdrum Prairie, WA
QB = Quincy Basin, WA
SR = Snake River Valley, WA
TV = Tucannon River Valley, WA
UB = Umatilla Basin, OR
UC = Upper Columbia River Valley, WA
WC = Willow Creek Valley, OR
WW = Walla Walla Valley, WA-OR
WV = Willamette Valley, OR
YV = Yakima Valley, WA
Key Characteristics Assessable in the Field
Three key physical characteristics of clastic dikes, (a) vertical sheeting, (b) taper direction, and (c) truncation by bedding, speak directly to dike origin and are readily assessable in the field.
(a) Vertical Sheeting - Sheeting is the result of repeated fracturing and sediment injection. Dikes in the study area grew in staccato fashion by filling of newly opened fractures by new pulses of sediment. Sheeting in dikes found elsewhere likely records a similar pattern of reinjection along preexisting weaknesses. New sheets erode older ones; rip-ups derived from adjacent bands should be present in abundance. Small packages of parallel sheets, typically up to six or so in the case of study area dikes, commonly crosscut older packages and reveal variations in the way fractures propagate. If new sheets tap progressively younger source beds, small collapses should be present above fractures opening below. At some of my study sites, multiple collapses appear in successive rhythmites, each initiating a dike. Brief periods of dike widening alternate with longer periods of inactivity (hiatus), a pattern that tracks with cyclic filling and spilling by proglacial lakes.
(b) Taper Direction - Taper direction is strongly tied to dike origin and, whether upward or downward, must be assessed correctly, even when exposure is limited. Taper direction reveals how fractures propagate, the mode of fracture, and the orientation of the pressure gradient. Taper often reveals the source of dike fills. Upward-tapering dikes indicate a buried sediment source and correspond with upward fluid escape under a normal pressure gradient. Fluid pressure in the mobilized bed exceeds the confining stress of the overburden. Downward-tapering dikes indicate injection from the surfacewithin an inverted pressure gradient. Sediment sourced at the surface fills descending dikes. Downward-tapering (per descendum) dikes have few triggers. Where formed, the local stratigraphy will commonly contain low-pressure zones, such as openwork gravels or layers of coarse sand with abundant pore space. Such layers are resistant to compaction and too dry to sustain fluid pressure, thus may provide low-resistance pathways that mimic unconfined layers located near the ground surface. Coarse layers, commonly the basal portions of rhythmites, appear to act as efficient pathways that control how fluid-driven fractures propagate in flood-loaded strata.
(c) Truncations - Understanding how dikes are truncated is a key to understanding how many dikes formed. Truncation by bedding contacts or other surfaces is common in Touchet Bed rhythmite sections. Truncations are not just another characteristic in a checklist. Dikes with bedding-truncated tops connect the timing of deposition to the timing of injection. Tops truncated by multiple bedding contacts in a stack of rhythmites (or other strata) are powerful evidence for repeated deformation, reinjection, and dike growth over time.
Figure 8. Flood counts and the development of vertical sheeting in the dikes.
Stacks of rhythmites (Touchet Beds) deposited by Pleistocene megafloods accumulated to different thicknesses in different parts of the Channeled Scabland. Rhythmite counts vary depending on location. The most complete rhythmite sections occur in slackwater basins repeatedly filled by Lake Lewis, Lake Condon, and Lake Allison. Lake Lewis filled the Walla Walla Valley (Waitt, 1980; 1985), Lewiston Basin (Bretz, 1929; Webster and others 1982), and Tucannon Valley (Smith, 1993). Lake Condon filled the Umatilla Valley (Benito and O'Connor, 2003), Willow Creek Valley (Cooley, 2015), and Sixmile Valley. Lake Allison filled the Willamette Valley (Glenn, 1965). Glacial Lake Columbia filled the Sanpoil Valley (Atwater, 1986), Upper Columbia Valley (Kiver and Stradling, 1982; Hanson and Clague, 2012), Latah Creek Valley (Rigby, 1982; Kiver and Stradling, 1982; Waitt, 1983; Meyer, 1999), and Foster Coulee (Russell, 1893). Rhythmites also occur in the Glacial Priest Lake basin (Walker, 1967; Breckenridge, 1989). The rhythmite count at a site approximates the flood count. All floods flowed through Wallula Gap and slackwater lakes that ponded there were the deepest anywhere in the region (>200m). Consequently, the largest dikes occur in full rhythmite sections in the southern Pasco Basin, eastern Umatilla Basin, and western Walla Walla Valley. Fill band counts (sheet counts) record repeated flood-loading, substrate failure, and sediment injection. Sheet counts (injections) roughly scale with rhythmite counts (flood counts), though a one-sheet-per-flood pattern is not robust. The sheet count data suggest that up to about 10 sheets may form in a given dike during a flood. Local conditions seem to play a role(flow regime, water depth, valley configuration, grainsize, slackwater lake residence time, etc.). Because dikes widen by the addition of new sediment via reinjection, their widest portions occur near the base of rhythmite stacks (lower in the section) rather than near their tops (higher in the section). Dikes can appear to taper upward because newer fills that tapped successively younger flood beds intruded alongside older fills, forming composite injection dikes
Figure 9. Lateral spreading?
(A) Channel incision and creation of a free face removes support and facilitates lateral spreading. (B) Seismic shaking, liquefaction in a sandy layer at depth results in mobilization of in situ sediment and venting of a slurry to the surface (sand blows). Volcanic edifices of sand are formed. (C) A large vertical load imposed by a megaflood (or slackwater lake) increased pore fluid pressures in the substrate (sediment or rock), initiating hydraulic fracture. Fractures immediately fill with sediment sourced from circulating currents at the base of the flood (or newly-deposited lake bottom sediments). Fractures are propped by the sandy fill and become clastic dikes. Internal sheeting develops during single events and over time as new dikes merge with older ones. Repeated flooding creates composite clastic dikes (merged dikes sourced in floodbeds of different ages). The three scenarios above assume a near-level ground surface, which comports with known locations of very large clastic dike (basin centers). A free face cliff is required for spreading to occur, specifically because valley floors have so little slope; blocks of sediment have nowhere to go without one. Is there evidence of free faces (i.e., filled troughs) in exposures that contain large sheeted dikes? Is there evidence of widespread liquefaction? Is there evidence of block translation? Why are the largest dikes not found on the sloping sides of valley (areas more prone to sliding), but in flat valley bottoms?
Figure 10. Formation of sheeted dike fills.
Hydraulic fracture at the nearfield scale explains development of sheeting in clastic dikes of the megaflood region. During rapid overloading, dike growth (cracking and filling) corresponds with pressure-volume cycling where fluid pressure remains between the minimum and maximum principal stress values. Fluid-driven fracture is also responsible for producing slender, descending, sheeted dikes in other geologic settings where rapid overloading has occurred (lahar, glacier, debris flow, etc.). While the general principles of hydraulic fracture are well established in the literature since the 1880s, the development of sheeting in clastic dikes by hydraulic fracture, as I've illustrated here, is new and published first here.
This study documents sheeted dikes throughout a vast inland region located far from the plate margin and swept repeatedly by Ice Age megafloods. Sedimentology, age, structure, and scale of the dikes indicate they all share a common origin: repeated floodwater loading and hydrofracture. Hydrofracture and flood-triggered slumping was suspected by earlier workers (Baker, 1973; Pogue, 1998), but not tested. Based on the field data, I interpret the dikes as nontectonic structures. Fracture response of silty-sandy rhythmites and other substrates to repeated overloading by floodwaters best explains why, when, where, and how the dikes formed. Dike widths reflect local flood counts and sheeting reflects crack-and-fill cycling during single events (Figure 10) and reinjection over time (Figure 8, 9). Their field-observable characteristics distinguish them from sand blows and other liquefaction structures formed elsewhere by strong recurrent earthquakes. Clastic dikes in the megaflood region are flood injectites, not seismites.
Footnote *1* Bruce Bjornstad, a retired career Quaternary geologist at Hanford, has, more than any of his PNNL colleagues, mentioned the clastic dikes in his writing, beginning with his university work in the late 1970s and continuing with his recent guidebooks on scabland geology. The primary focus of his professional career was the megaflood deposits beneath the Hanford Nuclear Site (Pasco Basin, WA) and, to a lesser extent, sediments of the Ringold Formation. Despite his lengthy publications list, Bjornstad has never published new, peer reviewed work on the clastic dikes in Eastern Washington, though he is listed as a coauthor on Fecht and others (1999). Bjornstad's work is a proxy for the understanding among Hanford geoscientists. The list of quotes below show his views on the origin of the dikes have changed over time, though what accounts for these changes remains unclear. Prior to 1996 few articles contained any data on the dikes.
a.) Bjornstad (1980)
"The assemblage of sedimentary structures within the Touchet Beds comparable to turbidites ...suggest periodic, rapid, subaqueous deposition of successive rhythmites by turbidity-like currents created by flood surges during a single flood. Additional evidence suggesting that flood surges rather than separate floods were responsible for rhythmite formation [includes]...the possible association relating clastic dikes with soft sediment deformation."
b.) Bjornstad (1990)
"These dikes are thought to represent dewatering structures that developed during compaction and settling of cataclysmic flood deposits during or soon after floodwaters drained from the Pasco Basin (Bergeron and others, 1987)." "Most clastic dikes, ubiquitous in flood deposits throughout the Pasco Basin, appear to have formed through forcible injection during waning stages of flooding (Black, 1979; WCC, 1981) during this time."
c.) Bjornstad and Teel (1993)
"In the Pasco Basin, clastic dikes are believed to be dewatering structures associated with lake draining following cataclysmic floods." d.) Bjornstad and others (2001)
"The dikes signify soft-sediment deformation during or soon after flooding, perhaps associated with flood-induced seismicity (Cooley and others., 1996; Fecht and others, 1999)."
e.) Bjornstad (2006)
"Clastic dikes formed during or soon after Ice Age flooding, perhaps because of ground shaking during earthquakes...If earthquakes occurred more frequently, we might expect to see more dikes in sequences of flood beds with truncations atop flood beds. But this is not the case..."
f.) Bjornstad and Lanigan (2007)
"Clastic dikes may be the result of ground shaking, which caused the wet sediments to liquefy and flow along paths of weakness down into or up along vertical earthquake-generated cracks in the flood deposits."
I have not submitted this manuscript to an academic journal other than Northwest Geology (Tobacco Root Geological Society). Supporting publication of their excellent annual field guides is far more important to me than whatever prestige is to be gained through publication in a traditional academic journal. Thousands have read this free online article as compared to dozens if published in a journal. The manuscript was reviewed by Mike Stickney, Director of Earthquake Studies Office, Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology and Jeff Lonn, Research Geologist, Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology.
Footnote *3* In our work as Whitman College geology students (Cooley, 1996; Cooley and others, 1996) and follow on studies (Niell and others, 1997; Pogue, 1998), we imprecisely stated that dikes penetrate from top to bottom through the entire stack of rhythmites, thus were late-flooding and/or post-flooding features. While many dikes do cut from top to bottom through large exposures containing dozens of flood rhythmites, their internal structure - their vertical sheeting - preserves a more nuanced history of incremental growth coincident with flooding. Vertical sheets of sediment that comprise large dikes (sheets = dikelets = fill bands), are often truncated at their tops by depositional contacts between rhythmites and surfaces within rhythmites that correspond to abrupt changes in flow regime (i.e., upvalley flow, slackwater, downvalley drainage). As geologists, we think of a "clastic dike" as a single structure, but sheeted dikes are actually compound (multiple parts) and composite (new parts addedover time) structures. While the "dike" may crosscut the exposure, each sheet (or packages of sheets) traverses only a portion of it. The dikes grew as single fills andsheet packages during single events, and by the addition of new sheets/packages through time, each sourced from a different rhythmite. Dike growth occurred in tandem with Ice Age flood cycles, which punctuated the Pleistocene. As students, we regularly observed truncated sheets (and entire dikes) and were somewhat puzzled by them. We routinely commented to one another about them, photographed them, and sketched various truncation relationships in our field books. We did not, however, fully recognize, much less emphasize the fundamental importance sheet/package truncation plays in dike growth. The dikes are composite structures that grew wider and deeper by reinjection during dozens of catastrophic glacial outburst flood events. Truncated sheets indicate the dikes are not single-event structures injected at the tail end of Missoula flooding (crosscutting features that post-date deposition of all or most floodbeds), as our clumsy early interpretations suggest. Rather, they are long-lived structures that grew in pulses during floods over time. Many large dikes grew by repeated sheet injection over thousands of years. Their growth recurrence interval is the flood interval.
The term "injection" has no directional implication. Injected material may have moved upward, downward, or sideways. Injection describes fracture-filling where wet or slurried material is mobilized and moves into fractured sediment or rock. The usage of injection and injectite in this article is consistent with the relevant geoscience literature (sediments and structure of petroleum reservoirs), not general textbooks on sedimentology and stratigraphy. For example, injection wells move water from the surface to the subsurface. Hydraulic injection involves the lateral propagation of fractures and proppant from the well bore into the formation. Fluidized injection is commonly used to describe both upward-pinching clastic dikes and dikes that were filled from the top.
Footnote *5* Burlingame Canyon is on private land is not accessible to the public without formal permission from landowners.
Footnote *6* In the course of my investigation of calcrete-bearing sediments of Plio-Pleistocene age near Othello, WA, I have not observed evidence of extensive soft sediment deformation consistent with strong, recurrent shaking in the two dozen sections I have described. I recently correlated 28 detailed stratigraphic columns from White Bluffs by Kevin Lindsey (Lindsey et al., 1996 Appendix A), finding no evidence of repeated, widespread shaking. Occurrences of soft sediment deformation in Pleistocene sediments is plainly syn-depositional. I have observed local deformation and some small, unsheeted fluidization structures in Ringold sediments in roadcuts near Saddle Mountains' frontal thrust. Trenching by Michael West more than two decades ago documented young faulting higher on the mountain. Steve Reidel never mentioned features one might interpret as seismites in his numerous reports and geologic maps on YFB uplifts.
A package of fill bands injected during a single flood. Three fill bands comprise a composite clastic dike in the idealized example above. Each band formed at a slightly different time during a megaflood event. Each fracture opening corresponds with a slightly different flow regime, taps a slightly different stratigraphic level within a rhythmite as it forms, and accesses sediment of a different grainsize. Substitute different flood beds for stratigraphic position within a single bed to explain reinjected dikes in the region. At a larger scale, dike fills reflect the caliber of the sediment available to them. Grainsize in flood deposits is primarily determined by the local flow regime - high-energy channel, backflooded valley, slackwater lake. Since the configuration of most valleys and bedrock water gaps were not radically changed by flood erosion, successive floods produced more or less the same flow regimes and deposited the same grainsizes in the same places over and over. For example, the protected Touchet Valley received mostly medium to fine sand and silt. Dikes there are filled with the same. The Starbuck area, situated close to high-velocity coulees, received more gravelly sand. Dikes there are filled with coarser material. A page from one of my field books.
Figures, photos, and text have been added to this online version. This article superceeds the printed version (Cooley, 2020). I update this version from time to time as new information becomes available. This seems a modern way to work - a more appropriate way to report results of ongoing research than a static journal article. Simply include the date you accessed it in your citation.
If my work informs yours, you should cite this web-based article or the original article (Cooley, 2020). What is presented here is new work and original work. It is entirely my own. Please include the date you accessed it in your citation.
Cooley, S.W., date accessed, Sheeted clastic dikes in the megaflood region, WA-OR-ID-MT, https://www.skyecooley.com/single-post/2020/09/15/Sheeted-Clastic-Dikes-in-the-Megaflood-Region
Cooley, S.W., 2020, Sheeted clastic dikes in the megaflood region, WA-OR-ID-MT in Lonn, J; English, A.; McDonald, K.; Hargrave, P. (editors), Northwest Geology: Journal of the Tobacco Root Geological Society, 45th Annual Field Conference - Geology of the Bitterroot Region and Other Papers v. 49, p. 1-17
Alwin, J.A., and Scott, W.E., 1970, Clastic dikes of the Touchet Beds, southeastern Washington: Northwest Science, v. 44, p. 58. Ambraseys, N.N., 1991, Engineering seismology: International Journal of Earthquake Structural Dynamics, v. 17, p. 1-105. Atwater, B.F., 1986. Pleistocene glacial-lake deposits of the Sanpoil River Valley, northeastern Washington: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 1661, 39 pgs. Atwater, B.F., 1994, Geology of Holocene liquefaction features along the lower Columbia River at Marsh, Brush, Price, Hunting, and Wallace Island, Oregon and Washington: U.S. Geological Survey Open-file Report 94-209, 64 pgs. Bader, N.E., Spencer, P.K., Bailey, A.S., Gastineau, K.M., Tinkler, E.R., Pluhar, C.J., and Bjornstad, B.N., 2016, A loess record of pre-Late Wisconsin glacial outburst flooding, Pleistocene paleoenvironment, and Irvingtonian fauna from the Rulo site, southeastern Washington, USA: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, v. 462, p. 57-69. Baker, V.R., 1973, Paleohydrology and sedimentology of Lake Missoula flooding in Eastern Washington, Geological Society of America Special Paper 144, 79 pgs. Baker, V.R., and Bunker, R.C., 1985, Cataclysmic Late Pleistocene flooding from Glacial Lake Missoula, A review: Quaternary Science Reviews, v. 4, p. 1-41. Baker, V.R., Bjornstad, B.N., Gaylord, D.R., Smith, G.A., Meyer, S.E.,Alho, P., Breckenridge, R.M., Sweeney, M.R., Zreda, M., 2016, Pleistocene megaflood landscapes of the Channeled Scablands: in Lewis, R.S., and Schmidt, K.L., eds., Exploring the Geology of the Inland Northwest: Geological Society of America Field Guide 41, 73 pgs.
Beaulieu, J.D., 1974, Geologic hazards of Hood River, Wasco, and Sherman Counties, Oregon: Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries Bulletin, v. 91, p. 18.
Benito, G., and O'Connor, J.E., 2003, Number and size of last-glacial Missoula floods in the Columbia River valley between the Pasco Basin, Washington, and Portland, Oregon: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 115, p. 624-638. Bennett, S.E.K., Sherrod, B.L., Kelsey, H.M., Reedy, T.J., Lasher, J.P., Paces, J.B., and Mahan, S.A., 2016, History of recent surface rupturing earthquakes on the Burbank fault, Yakima Folds, central Washington: American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, Abstract T41B-2908. Bingham, J.W., and Grolier, M.J., 1966, The Yakima Basalt and Ellensburg Formation of south-central Washington: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 1224-G
Bjornstad, B.N., 1982, Catastrophic flood surging represented in the Touchet Beds of the Walla Walla Valley, Washington: American Quaternary Association 7th Biennial Conference Program and Abstracts, p. 72.
Bjornstad, B.N., 2006, On the trail of the Ice Age Floods: A geological field guide to the Mid-Columbia Basin, Keokee Books, 308 pgs. Bjornstad, B.N., Fecht, K.R., and Tallman, A.M., 1990, Quaternary stratigraphy of the Pasco Basin area, south-central Washington: Rockwell International Report RHO-BW-SA-563A, 24 pgs. Bjornstad, B.N., and Teel, S.S., 1993, Natural analog study of engineered protective barriers at the Hanford Site: Pacific Northwest Lab Report PNL-8840 UC-510. Bjornstad, B.N., Fecht, K.R., and Pluhar, C.J., 2001, Long history of Pre-Wisconsin Ice Age cataclysmic floods: Evidence from southeastern Washington State: Journal of Geology, v. 109, p. 695-713. Bjornstad, B.N., and Lanigan, D.C., 2007, Geologic descriptions for the solid-waste low level burial grounds: Pacific Northwest National Lab Report PNNL-16887. Black, R.F., 1979, Clastic dikes of the Pasco Basin, southeastern Washington: Rockwell Hanford Report RHO-BWI-C-64, 65 pgs. Braccini, E., Boer, W., Hurst, A., Huuse, M., Vigorito, M., and Templeton, G., 2008, Sand injectites: Oilfield Review, v. 20, p. 34-49. Bretz, J H., 1929, Valley deposits immediately east of the Channeled Scabland of Washington: Journal of Geology, v .37, p. 393-427. Boyd, K.F., and Schumm, S.A., 1995, Geomorphic evidence of deformation in the northern part of the New Madrid seismic zone: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1538-R, p. 1-35.
Brown, D.J., and Brown, R.E., 1962, Touchet clastic dikes in the Ringold Formation: Hanford Atomic Products Operation Report HW-SA-2851, 11 pgs. Carson, R.J., McKhann, C.F., and M.H. Pizey, M.H., 1978, The Touchet Beds of the Walla Walla Valley: in Baker, V.R., and Nummedal, D. (eds.), The Channeled Scabland: National Aeronautics and Space Administration, p. 173-177. Cobain, S.L., Hodgson, D.M., Peakall, J., and Shiers, M.N., 2016, An integrated model of clastic injectites and basin floor lobe complexes, implications for stratigraphic trap plays: Basin Research, v. 29, p. 816-835. Coppersmith, R., Hanson, K., Unruh, J., and Slack, C., 2014, Structural analysis and Quaternary investigations in support of the Hanford PSHA in Hanford Sitewide Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Report #23361, 173 pgs. Cooley, S.W., 2015, The curious clastic dikes of the Columbia Basin: in Carson, R.J., Many Waters, Natural history of the Walla Walla Valley and vicinity: Keokee Books, p. 90-91 Cooley, S.W., Unpublished photograph of clastic dikes descending from the base of a debris flow deposit in Black Dragon Canyon, San Rafael Swell, UT:
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Dikes_in_black_dragon_canyon_UT.JPG Cooley, S.W., 2014, Exposures of large clastic dikes in Columbia Basin: A geologic traverse through Washington, Oregon, and Idaho, in Northwest Geology, Tobacco Root Geological Society Guidebook v. 43, p. 133-147
Cooley, S.W., Pidduck, B.K., and Pogue, K.R., 1996, Mechanism and timing of emplacement of clastic dikes in the Touchet Beds of the Walla Walla Valley, south-central Washington: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 28, p. 57.
Fecht, K.R., Bjornstad, B.N., Horton, D.G., Last, G.V., Reidel, S.P., and Lindsey, K.A., 1999, Clastic injection dikes of the Pasco Basin and vicinity: Bechtell-Hanford Report BHI-01103, 217 pgs. Feng, Z.Z., 2017, Preface of the Chinese version of "The seismite problem": Journal of Palaeogeography, v. 6, p. 7-11. Flint, R.F., 1938, Origin of the Cheney-Palouse scabland tract: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 46, p. 169-194. Foundation Sciences, Inc., 1980, Geologic reconnaissance of parts of the Walla Walla and Pullman, Washington, and Pendleton, Oregon 1 x 2 degree AMS quadrangles: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers-Seattle District, Report DACW67-80-C-0125, 144 pgs. Fuller, M.L., 1912, The New Madrid earthquake: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 494, 129 pgs. Galli, P., 2000, New empirical relationships between magnitude and distance for liquefaction: Tectonophysics, v. 324, p. 169-187. Glenn, J.L., 1965, Late Quaternary Sedimentation and Geologic History of the North Willamette Valley, OR: PhD Dissertation, Oregon State University, 248 pgs. Gohn, G.S., Weems, R.E., Obermeier, S.F., and Gelinas, R.L., 1984, Field studies of earthquake-induced, liquefaction-flowage features in the Charleston, South Carolina, area: U.S. Geological Survey Preliminary Report, 29 pgs. Hanson, M.A., Lian, O.B., and Clague, J.J., The sequence and timing of large late Pleistocene floods from glacial Lake Missoula: Quaternary Science Reviews, v. 31, p. 67-81. Herriott, T.M., Reger, C.J., Wartes, R.D., LePain, M.A., and DL Gillis, R.J., 2014, Geologic context, age constraints, and sedimentology of a Pleistocene volcaniclastic succession near Mount Spurr volcano, south-central Alaska: Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys, Report of Investigation RI-2014-2, 35 pgs. Holtzer, T.L., Noce, T.E., and Bennett, M.J., 2011, Strong ground motion inferred from liquefaction caused by the 1811-1812 New Madrid, Missouri, earthquakes: Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, v. 105, p. 2589-2603. Hyashi, T., 1966, Clastic dikes in Japan: Japanese Journal of Geology and Geography, v. 37, p. 1-20. Jenkins, O.P., 1925, Clastic dikes of eastern Washington and their geologic significance American Journal of Science: v. 57, p. 234-246. Jolly, R.J., and Lonergan, L., 2002, Mechanisms and controls on the formation of sand intrusions: Journal of the Geological Society, v. 159, p. 605-617. Jones, F.O., and Deacon, R.J., 1966, Geology and tectonic history of the Hanford Area and its relation to the geology and tectonic history of the state of Washington and the active seismic zones of western Washington and western Montana: Douglas United Nuclear, Inc. Consultants Report DUN-1410, 50 pgs. Kiver, E.P., Stradling, D.F., Roberts, S., and Fountain, D., 1982, Quaternary geology of the Spokane area: Tobacco Root Geological Society 1980 Field Conference Guidebook, p. 26-44. Le Heron, D.P., and Etienne, J.L., 2005, A complex subglacial clastic dyke swarm, Myrdalsjokull, southern Iceland: Sedimentary Geology, v. 181, p. 25-37. Lidke, D.J., Johnson, S.Y., McCrory, P.A., Personius, S.F., Nelson, A.R., Dart, R.L., Bradley, L., Haller, K., and Machette, M.N., 2003, Map and data for Quaternary faults and folds in Washington State, U.S. Geological Survey Open-file Report 03-428, 16 pgs. Lindsey K.A., 1996, The Miocene to Pliocene Ringold Formation and associated deposits of the ancestral Columbia River system, south-central Washington and north-central Oregon: Washington Division of Geology and Earth Resources, Open-file Report 96-8, 176 pgs. Lupher, R.L., 1944, Clastic dikes of the Columbia Basin region, Washington and Idaho: Bulletin of the Geological Society of America, v. 55, p.1431-1462. McCalpin, J.P., 2009, Paleoseismology (2nd Edition), Academic Press, 613 pgs. Meyer, S.A., 1999, Depositional history of pre-Late and Late Wisconsin outburst flood deposits in northern Washington and Idaho, Analysis of flood paths and provenance: MS Thesis, Washington State University, 91 pgs. Montenat, C., Barrier, P., d'Estevou, P.O., and Hibsch, C., 2007, Seismites: An attempt at critical analysis and classification: Sedimentary Geology, v. 196, p. 5-30. Moretti, M, and Van Loon, A.J, 2014, Restrictions to application of 'diagnostic' criteria for recognizing ancient seismites: Journal of Palaeogeography, v. 3, p. 162-173. Neill, A. R., Leckey, E.H., and Pogue, K.R., 1997, Pleistocene dikes in Tertiary rocks: Downward emplacement of Touchet Bed clastic dikes into co-seismic fissures, south-central Washington: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 29, p. 55. Newcomb, R.C., 1962, Hydraulic injection of clastic dikes in the Touchet Beds, Washington, Oregon, and Idaho: Geological Society of the Oregon Country Bulletin, v. 28, p. 70. Obermeier, S.F., 1996, Use of liquefaction-induced features for paleoseismic analysis: An overview of how seismic liquefaction features can be distinguished from other features and how regional distribution and properties of source sediment can be used to infer the location and strength of Holocene paleoearthquakes: Engineering Geology, v. 44, p. 1-76. Obermeier, S.F., Olson, S.M., and Green, R.A., 2005, Field occurrences of liquefaction-induced features: A primer for engineering geologic analysis of paleoseismic shaking: Engineering Geology, v. 76, p. 209-234. Obermeier, S.F., 2009, Chapter 7: Using liquefaction-induced features for paleoseismic analysis: in McCalpin, J.P., ed., Paleoseismology, Academic Press, p. 497-564. Obermeier, S.F., 1998, Liquefaction evidence for strong earthquakes of Holocene and latest Pleistocene ages in the states of Indiana and Illinois, USA: Engineering Geology, v. 50, p. 227-254. Obermeier, S.F., 1998, Seismic liquefaction features: Examples from paleoseismic investigations in the continental United States: U.S. Geological Survey Open-file Report 98-488 (web version only), https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1998/of98-488. Obermeier, S.F., Martin, J.R., Frankel, A.D., Youd, T.L., Munson, P.J., Munson, C.A., and Pond, E.C., 1993, Liquefaction evidence for one or more strong Holocene earthquakes in the Wabash Valley of southern Indiana and Illinois, with a preliminary estimate of magnitude: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1536, 27 pgs. Obermeier, S.F., Olson, S.M., and Green, R.A., 2005, Field occurrences of liquefaction-induced features: a primer for engineering geologic analysis of paleoseismic shaking: Engineering Geology, v. 76, p. 209-234. Peterson, C.D., and Madin, I.P., 1998, Coseismic paleoliquefaction evidence in the central Cascadia margin, USA: Oregon Geology, v. 59, p. 51-74. Phillips, E.; Lipka, E., and van der Meer, J.J., 2013, Micromorphological evidence of liquefaction, injection and sediment deposition during basal sliding of glaciers: Quaternary Science Reviews, v. 81, p. 114-137. Pogue, K.R., 1998, Earthquake-generated(?) structures in Missoula flood slackwater sediments (Touchet Beds) of southeastern Washington: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 30, p. 398-399.
Pritchard, C.J., and Cebula, L., 2016, Geologic and anthropogenic history of the Palouse Falls area: Floods, fractures, clastic dikes, and the receding falls: in Lewis, R.S., and Schmidt K.L., eds.: Geological Society of America Field Guide, v. 41, p. 75-92. Rigby, J.G., 1982, The sedimentary, mineralogy, and depositional environment of a sequence of Quaternary catastrophic flood-derived lacustrine turbidites near Spokane, WA: MS Thesis, University of Idaho, 132 pgs. Russell, I.C., 1893, A geological reconnoissance in central Washington: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 108, 108 pgs. Seilacher, A., 1969, Fault-graded beds interpreted as seismites: Sedimentology, v. 13, p. 15-159. Shanmugam, G., 2016, The seismite problem: Journal of Palaeogeography, v. 5, p. 318-362. Shaw, J., Munro-Stasiuk, M., Sawyer, B., Beaney, C., Lesemann, J., Musacchio, A., Rains, B., and Young, R.R., 1999, The Channeled Scabland: Back to Bretz?: Geology, v. 27, p. 605-608. Sherrod, B.L., Barnett, E.A., Knepprath, Nichole, and Foit, F.F., Jr., 2013, Paleoseismology of a possible fault scarp in Wenas Valley, central Washington: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Map 3239. Sherrod, B., Blakely, R.J., Lasher, J.P., Lamb, A.P., Mahan, S.A., Foit, F.F., and Barnett, E., 2016, Active faulting on the Wallula fault zone within the Olympic-Wallowa lineament, Washington State, USA: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 128, p. 1636-1659. Silver, M.H., and Pogue, K.R, 2002, Analysis of plan-view geometry of clastic dike networks in Missoula Flood slackwater sediments (Touchet Beds), southeastern Washington: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 34, p. 24. Smith, G., 1993, Missoula flood dynamics and magnitude inferred from sedimentology of slack-water deposits on the Columbia Plateau: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 105, p. 77-100. Spencer, P.K, and Jaffee, M., 2002, Pre-late Wisconsinan glacial outburst floods in southeastern Washington, the indirect record: Washington Geology, v. 30, p. 9-16.
Sutherland, J.L.; Evans, D.J.A., Carrivick, J.L.; Shulmeister, J.; Rother, H., 2022, A model of ice-marginal sediment-landform development at Lake Tekapo, Southern Alps, New Zealand, Geografiska Annaler: Series A - Physical Geography, p. 1-33 Van Loon, A.T., 2014, The Mesoproterozoic "seismites" at Laiyuan (Hebei Province, E China) re-interpreted: Geologos, v. 20, p. 139-146. Von Brunn, V., and Talbot, C.J., Formation and deformation of subglacial intrusive clastic sheets in the Dwyka Formation of northern Natal, South Africa: Journal of Sedimentary Research, v. 56, p. 35-44. Waitt, R.B., 1980, About forty last-glacial Lake Missoula jokulhlaups through southern Washington: Journal of Geology, v. 88, p. 653-679. Waitt, R.B., 1983, Tens of successive, colossal Missoula floods at north and east margins of Channeled Scabland: Friends of the Pleistocene Rocky Mountain Cell Guidebook for the 1983 Field Conference, 29 pgs. Waitt, R.B., 1985, Case for periodic, colossal jokulhlaups from Pleistocene glacial Lake Missoula: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 96, p. 1271-1286. Waitt, R.B., Breckenridge, R.M., Kiver, E.P, and Stradling, D.F., 2016, Chapter 17: Late Wisconsin Cordilleran Ice Sheet and colossal floods in northeast Washington and Northern Idaho: in Cheney, E.S. (ed.), The Geology of Washington and Beyond, from Laurentia to Cascadia; University of Washington Press, p. 233-256. Walker, E.H., 1967, Varved lake beds in northern Idaho and northeastern Washington: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 575-B, p. 83. Ward, A., Conrad, M.E., Daily, W.D., Fink, J.B., Freedman, V.L., Gee, G.W., Hoverston, G.M., Keller, M.J., Majer, E.L., Murray, C.J., White, M.D., Yabusaki, S.B., Zhang, Z.F., 2006, Vadose zone transport field study summary report, U.S. Department of Energy Report DE-AC05-76RL01830, 288 pgs Woodward-Clyde Consultants, 1981, Task D3: Quaternary sediments study of the Pasco Basin and adjacent areas: Report to Washington State Public Power Supply System, 33 pgs.