Periglacial Soil Wedges East of Glacier National Park


Brown soil wedges follow polygonal crack networks in fine grained sediment (lakebeds) south of Browning, MT. The features formed during the Pleistocene in a periglacial region mapped by Murton (2020) and French (2017).


Periglacial wedges are reported in the Lemhi Range of Idaho (Butler, 1984), the Owl Cave-Wasden Site on the Snake River Plain (Dort, 1968; Butler, 1969), Glacial Lake Missoula basin in western Montana (Chambers, 1984; Chambers and Curry, 1989; Levish, 1997; Hanson et al., 2012; Smith, 2014, 2021), glacial deposits east of Waterton-Glacier Parks (Karlstrom, 1990), and terrace gravels near Lewistown, MT (Schafer, 1949). None are as conspicuous as the fully-developed networks of fossil ice wedge casts near Laramie, WY (Grasso, 1979; Mears, 1981, 1987), but do resemble features in other high-elevation basins of Wyoming (Nissen and Mears, 1990; Munn and Spackman, 1991; Dillon and Sorenson, 2007).


Soil wedges shown here are indicators of a cold, dry, windswept landscape that existed at the end of the last Ice Age. Its probably not correct to call it "permafrost" (MAT below 0 degC) and not quite "tundra", but pretty close - maybe "cold steppe". Soil freezing occurred, but it may have been seasonal, not perennial.


You can tell that these wedges are relict features (no longer actively forming) because they are truncated by a younger loess soil (possibly an Ap?). This area used to be covered by the Two Medicine Lobe of the Laurentide Ice Sheet (called "Keewatin Ice Sheet" in some older USGS publications) and possibly Glacial Lake Cutbank (Calhoun, 1906; Alden, 1932). Not sure which lake the sediments are associated with. The ice retreated prior to wedge growth.


Photo location is east of Glacier National Park, on the East Front of the Rocky Mountains. Drive south from Browning, MT on Hwy 89 to roadcuts between Two Medicine River and Badger Creek.


Let me know if you know of other relict soil wedges of fossil ice wedge casts in Montana.




Approximate location on map by Alden (1932).




Last 50 Posts
All Posts by Month