Bibliography of Clastic Dikes Research
About This Bibliography
This collection of more than 500 citations from published journal articles, government documents, theses, abstracts, web sites, and industry reports accounts for most of the publicly available documents on clastic dikes (e.g. dykes: British, French; diques: Spanish). The list is extensive, not exhaustive. It is a work in progress. Please cite this website. See Wikipedia: Clastic Dike (I edit that page because I'm a dork).
Keywords & Search Terms Used
Basin-trapped seismicity, clastic intrusion/intrusive, clay vein, cyclic stress loading, extra-structural cracks, fissure fills, Hanford Site stratigraphy, interstratal dewatering, lateral spreading, liquefaction features, neptunian/neptunic dike/dyke/fissures, diques neptunicos y brechas sinsedimentarias, paleoseismic indicators, pebble dikes, polygonal patterned ground, pseudo-ice wedge cast, sand blow, sand injectite, sandstone dike/dyke, sedimentary insertion, seismite, sheeted clastic dike/dyke, soft-sediment deformation, soil liquefaction, subsurface-initiated cracks, surface-initiated cracks, synsedimentary filling, tension fractures, Touchet Beds, trans-horizon cracks.
Hypotheses for Clastic Dike Formation
Liquefaction due to shaking, liquefaction without seismicity, water escape/dewatering, cryogenesis, lake water oscillation (seiche effect), rapidly filled reservoir seismicity, basin-trapped wave sloshing, thixotropic behavior, bolide impact, salt dome collapse, gravity fills associated with spaces opened along normal fault ramp relays, etc.
Related Topics Partially Covered
Surge marks, tempestites, pyroclastic fluid escape structures, liquefaction theory & features, load casts, ball-and-pillow structures, convolute bedding, patterned ground, sand blows, sand volcanos, lunar dikes, molar tooth structures, seiche effect, glaciotectonics, vadose zone storage of waste at Hanford tank farms, peperites, pebble dikes (hydrothermal injections), polymict or monomict lithic breccia or microbreccia, pseudotachylites, cataclastites, mylolithenites, impact melt injections (tagamite, granophyre, etc.), thick melt sheets (apophyses), syneresis.
Research Categories Associated with Clastic Dikes
Dikes as paleoseismic indicators
Dikes and associated features as non-seismic features (alternative discussions)
Engineering properties and relationship between dikes and host materials
Dikes and sand injectites as geofluid conduits (petroleum, pollutants, etc.)
Neptunian dikes, concepts of formation (often relating to limestone formations)
Dikes as subglacial deformation features
Impact-related dikes, breccias, and microbreccias
Phreatic, hydrothermal, magmatic, and mineralized dikes and dike-like breccias
Dikes related to the salt dome collapse
Thanks to Information Providers
Washington State Division of Geology and Earth Resources Library, Olympia, WA
Google Scholar Search Engine, http://scholar.google.com
University of British Columbia Libraries, Vancouver, BC
Central Washington University Library, Ellensburg, WA
Eastern Washington University Library, Cheney, WA
Washington State University Libraries, Pullman, WA
Wenatchee Valley College Library, Wenatchee, WA
University of Washington Libraries, Seattle, WA
Whitman College Library, Walla Walla, WA
Gonzaga University Library, Spokane, WA
Washington State Archives, Cheney, WA
Cirque Geoscience Consultants
University of Idaho, Moscow, ID
Summit Library Consortium
Additions? skyecooley <at> gmail.com
Bibliography of Clastic Dike Research
Copyright Skye Cooley 2016 Version 12.2011
Acuna, J.A.; Yortsos, Y.C., 1995, Application of fractal geometry to the study of network of fractures and their pressure gradient, Water Resources Research, 31, p. 527-540
Ahlbrandt, T.S.; Harris, R.E., 1975, Clastic dikes in the Fountain Fm and Casper Fm (Permo-Pennsylvanian), southeastern Wyoming, Contributions to Geology (University of Wyoming), 14, p. 51-54
Ahlbrandt, T.S.; Harris, R.E., 1970, Origin of clastic dikes in the Fountain Fm and Casper Formations (Pennsylvanian), southeastern Wyoming, Journal of Sedimentary Research, 40
Alfaro, P.; Moretti, M.; Soria, J.M., 1997, Soft-sediment deformation structures induced by earthquakes (seismites) in Pliocene lacustrine deposits (Guadix-Baza Basin, Central Betic Cordillera), Ecologae Geologicae Helvetiae, 90, p. 531-540
Alfaro, P.; Soria, M., 1998, Soft-sediment deformation structures induced by cyclic stress of storm waves in tempestites (Miocene, Guadalquivir Basin, Spain), Terra Nova, 10, p. 145-150
Allen, C.R., 1975, Geological criteria for evaluating seismicity, GSA Bulletin, 86, p. 1041-1057
Allen, J.R.L., 1961, Sandstone-plugged pipes in the Lower Old Red Sandstone of Shophire, England, Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, 31, p. 325-335
Allen, J.R.L., 1986, Earthquake magnitude-frequency, epicentral distance, and soft sediment deformation in a sedimentary basin, GSA Bulletin, 86, p. 1041-1071
Allen, J.R..L, 1982, Sedimentary Structures: Their character and physical basis Vol. 2, Elsevier (New York)
Allison, I.S., 1933, New version of the Spokane Flood, GSA Bulletin, 44, p. 675-722
Allison, I.S., 1953, Clastic dikes in Quaternary lake sediments in Oregon [abstact], GSA Bulletin, 64, p. 1499-1528
Alwin, J.A.; Scott, W.F., 1970, Clastic dikes of the Touchet Beds, southeastern Washington, Northwest Science, 44, p. 58
Alwin, J.A., 1970, Clastic dikes of the Touchet Beds, southeastern Washington, MS Thesis, Washington State University, 87 pgs.
Amark, M., 1986, Clastic dikes formed beneath an active glacier, Geologiska Foereningen i Stockholm Foerhandlingar, 108, p. 13-20
Anderson, E.M., 1942, The dynamics of faulting and dyke formation, with applications to Britain, Edinburg Oliver Boyd Publishers, 191 pgs.
Anderson, J.L., 1944, Clastic dikes of the Chira and Verdun Formations, northwestern Peru, Journal of Geology, 52, p. 250-263
Andrews, B.J., 2003, Phreatomagmatic formation of polyphase clastic dikes, Moeraki Peninsula, South Island, New Zealand, GSA Abstracts with Programs, Abstract #152-9
Anonymous, 1937, Seismological notes [Walla Walla earthquake], Seismological Society of America Bulletin, 27, p. 139-143
Archer, J.B., 1984, Clastic intrusions in deep-sea fan deposits of the Rosroe Formation, Lower Ordovician, western Ireland, Journal of Sedimentary Geology, 54, p. 1197-1205
Astin, T.M.; Rogers, D.A., 1991, “Subaqueous shrinkage cracks” in the Devonian of Scotland, Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, 61, p. 850-859
Atkinson, G.M.; Liam-Finn, W.D.; Charlwood, R.G., 1984, Simple computation of liquefaction probability for seismic hazard applications, Earthquake Spectra, 1, p. 107-123
Atwater, B. F., 1984, Periodic floods from glacial Lake Missoula in the Sanpoil Arm of Glacial Lake Columbia, northeastern Washington, Geology, 12, p. 464-467
Atwater, B. F., 1986, Pleistocene glacial-lake deposits of the Sanpoil River valley, northeastern Washington, U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin, 1661, 39 pgs.
Atwater, B.F., Musumi-Rokkaku, S., Satake, K., Tsuji, Y., Ueda, K., Yamaguchi, D.K., 2015, The orphan tsunami of 1700—Japanese clues to a parent earthquake in North America (2nd edition), University of Washington Press, USGS Professional Paper 1707, 135 pgs.
Audemard, F.A.; de Santis, F., 1991, Survey of liquefaction structures induced by recent moderate earthquakes, Bulletin of the International Association of Engineering Geology, 44, p. 5-16
Austin, S.A.; Morris, J.D., 1986, Tight fold and clastic dikes as evidence for rapid deposition and deformation of two very thick stratigraphic sequences, Proceedings of the First International Conference on Creationism, p. 3-13
Bahat, D., 1991, Tectono-fractography, Springer (Berlin), 354 pgs………
Baker, V.R.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Busacca, A.J.; Fecht, K.R.; Kiver, E.P.; Moody, U.L.; Rigby, J.G.; Stradling, D.F.; Tallman, A.M., 1991, Chapter 8: Quaternary Geology of the Columbia Plateau, in Morrison, R.B. (editor), The Geology of North America Volume K-2, Quaternary Non-glacial Geology: Conterminous U.S., Geological Society of America, p. 215-247
Ballantyne, C.K.; Harris, 1994, The Periglaciation of Great Britain, Cambridge University Press, 330 pgs.
Ballantyne, H.; Stewart, K.; Bartholomew, M.J., 2004, Laramide paleoseismites in the Clark’s Fork Basin, Montana and Wyoming, GSA Abstracts with Programs, 36, p. 36
Bartholomew, M.J., 2001, Paleoseismites and tectonics of the Deep River Triassic Basin, North Carolina, GSA Southern Section Abstracts with Programs, Abstract #4749
Bartholemew, M.J.; Brodie, B.M.; Willoughby, R.H.; Lewis, S.E.; Syms, F.H., 2002a, Mid-Tertiary paleoseismites: syndepositional features and section restoration used to indicate paleoseismicity, Atlantic Coastal Plain, South Carolina and Georgia, in Ettensohn, F.R.; Rast, N.; Brett, C.E. (editors), Ancient Seismites, GSA Special Paper, 359, p. 63-74
Bartholemew, M.J.; Stickney, M.C.; Wilde, E.M.; Dundas, R.G., 2002b, Late Quaternary paleoseismites: syndepositional features and section restoration used to indicate paleoseismicity and stress field orientations during faulting along the main Lima Reservoir fault, southwestern Montana, in Ettensohn, F.R.; Rast, N.; Brett, C.E. (editors), Ancient Seismites, GSA Special Paper, 359, p. 29-47
Bartholemew, M.J.; Stewart, K.G.; Wise, D.U.; Ballantyne, H.A., 2008, Field Guide: Paleoseismites: Indicators of Laramide tectonism and other events near the Bighorn Basin, Montana and Wyoming, Northwest Geology, 37, p. 135-158
Bateman, M.D., 2008, Luminescence dating of periglacial sediments and structures, Boreas, 37, p. 574-588
Beacom, L.E.; Anderson, T.B.; Holdsworth, R.E., 1999, Using basement-hosted clastic dykes as syn-rift palaeostress indicators; an example from the basal Stoer Group, northwest Scotland, Geological Magazine, 136, p. 301-310
Beavon, R.V., 1998, Archaen neptunian fissures and early history of the Destor-Porcupine fault zone, Timmins, Ontario, Canada, Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 35, p. 1402-1407
Beck, C.; Rochette, P.; Tardy, M., 1992, Interpretation en termes de paleoseismicite de niveaux destructures intercales dans des rythmites lacustres quaternaires des Alpes Nord-Occidentales, Comptus Rendu de l’Academi des Sciences, 315, p. 1525-1532
Best, J.L., 1989, Fluidization pipes in volcaniclastic mass flows, Volcan hudson, Southern Chile, Terra Nova, 1, p. 203-208
Beutner, E.C.; Jancin, M.D.; Simon, R.W., 1977, Dewatering origin of cleavage in light of deformed calcite veins and clastic dikes in Martinsburg Slate, Delaware water gap, New Jersey, Geology, 5, p. 118-122
Bhattacharya, H.N.; Bandyopadhyay, S., 1998, Seismites in a Proterozoic tidal succession, Singhbhum, Birhar, India, Sedimentary Geology, 119, p. 239-252
Bielenstein, H.U.; Charlesworth, H.A.K., 1965, Precambrian sandstone sills near Jasper, Alberta, Canadian Petroleum Geological Bulletin, 13, p. 405-408
Birman, J.H., 1952, Pleistocene clastic dikes in weathered granite-gneiss, Rhode Island, American Journal of Science, 250, p. 721-734
Bjornstad, B.N., 1980, Sedimentology and depositional environment of the Touchet Beds, Walla Walla River basin, Washington, MS Thesis, Eastern Washington University, 83 pgs.
Bjornstad, B.N., 1980, Sedimentology and depositional environment of the Touchet Beds, Walla Walla River basin, Washington, Rockwell Hanford Report #RHO-BWI-SA-44, 83 pgs.
Bjornstad, B.N., 1982, Catastrophic flood surging represented in the Touchet Beds of the Walla Walla River Valley, Washington, American Quaternary Association Abstracts with Programs (Seattle, WA), p. 72
Bjornstad, B.N.; Cadoret, N.A., 1997, Geology and geomorphology in the vicinity of Locke Island, Hanford Site, Washington, Northwest Anthropological Conference Abstracts with Programs (Ellensburg, WA), p. 26-27
Bjornstad, B.N.; Fecht, K.R., 1989, Pre-Wisconsin glacial-outburst floods: Pedogenic and paleomagnetic evidence from the Pasco Basin and adjacent Channeled Scabland, GSA Cordilleran/Rocky Mountain Section Abstracts with Programs (Spokane, WA), 21, p. 58
Bjornstad, B.N.; Fecht, K.R.; Pluhar, C.J., 2001, Long history of Pre-Wisconsin, Ice Age cataclysmic floods: Evidence from southeastern Washington State, Journal of Geology, 109, p. 695–713
Bjornstad, B.N., Last, G.V., Horton, D.G., 2003, Hydrogeology of the Hanford Site vadose zone, GSA Abstracts with Programs, 35, p. 530 (#210-3)
Bjornstad, B.N.; Murray, C.J.; Steefel, C.I., 1994, Physical and chemical heterogeneity within cataclysmic deposits, south-central Washington, GSA Abstracts with Programs, 26, p. A-68
Bjornstad, B.N.; Teel, S.S., 1993, Natural analog study of engineered protective barriers at the Hanford Site, Pacific Northwest Lab Report #PNL-8840, 50 pgs.
Black, R.F., 1983, Pseudo-ice wedge casts of Connecticut, northeastern United States, Quaternary Research, 20, p. 74-89
Black, R.F., 1979, Clastic dikes of the Pasco Basin, southeastern Washington, Rockwell Hanford Operations Report, RHO-BWI-C-64, 65 pgs.
Black, R.F., 1976, Periglacial features indicative of permafrost: Ice and soil wedges, Quaternary Research, 6, p. 74-89
Boehm, A.; Moore, J.C., 2002, Fluidized sandstone intrusions as an indicator of paleostress orientation, Santa Cruz, California, Geofluids, 2, p. 147
Borchardt, G.; Mace, N., 1992, Clastic dike as evidence for a major earthquake along the northern Hayward fault in Berkeley, in Borchardt, G.; Hirschfeld, S.E.; Lienkaemper, J.J.; McClellan, P.; Williams, P.L.; Wong, I.G., (Editors), Proceedings of the Second Conference on Earthquake Hazards in the Eastern San Francisco Bay Area, California Department of Conservation, Division of Mines and Geology Special Publication 113, p. 143-151
Borradaile, G.J., 1984, A note on sand dike orientations, Journal of Structural Geology, 6, p. 587-588
Borradaile, G.J., 1977, Compaction estimate limits from deformed sand dykes, Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, 47, p. 1598-1601
Borradaile, G.J., 1977, On cleavage and strain: Results of a study in West Germany using tectonically deformed sand dykes, Journal of the Geological Society (London), 133, p. 146-164
Boulter, C.A., 1974, Tectonic deformation of soft sedimentary clastic dikes from the Precambrian rocks of Tasmania, Australia, with particular reference to their relation with cleavages, GSA Bulletin, 85, p. 1413-1420
Bourgeois, J.; Johnson, S.Y., 2001, Geologic evidence of earthquakes at the Snohomish Delta, Washington, in the past 1200 yr, GSA Bulletin, 113, p. 482-494
Breckenridge, R.M. (editor), 1989, Glacial Lake Missoula and the Channeled Scabland, Field Trip Guidebook T310 for the 28th International Geological Congress, 72 pgs.
Breckenridge, R.M.; Othberg, K.L.; Weisz, D.W.; Meyer, S.E.; Gaylord, D.R., 1999, The use of paleomagnetic analysis to discriminate post-depositional deformation; An example from Missoula flood deposits, GSA Abstracts with Programs, 31, p. 5
Brothers et al. 1996
Brown, B.H., 1937, State line earthquake (abstract), Northwest Science, 11, p. 75-76
Brown, B.H., 1937, The state line earthquake at Milton and Walla Walla, Northwest Science, 11, p. 62-64
Brown, B.H., 1937, The State-Line earthquake at Milton and Walla, Seismological Society of America Bulletin, p. 205-209
Brown, D.J.; Brown, R.E., 1962, Touchet clastic dikes in the Ringold Fm, Hanford Operations Report, HW-SA-2851, p. 1-11
Broster, B.E., 1991, Glaciotectonic deformation in sediment and bedrock, Hat Creek, British Columbia, Geographahie physique et Quaternaire, 45, p. 5-20
Bryce, R.W.; Gee, G.W.; Spane, F.A.; Bjornstad, B.N., 1991, Hydrogeology of the Hanford Site: Implications for contaminant transport, GSA Abstracts with Programs, 23, p. A-74
Bryner, L., 1961, Breccia and pebble columns associated with epigenetic ore deposits, Economic Geology, 56, p. 488-508
Buckland, 1839, Transactions of the British Association for 1839, p. 76
Burbidge, G.H.; French, H.M.; Rust, B.R., 1988, Water escape fissures resembling ice-wedge casts in late Quaternary subaqueous outwash near St. Lazare, Quebec, Canada, Boreas, 17, p. 33-40
Butzer et al., 1978………..
Byrne, T., 1994, Sediment deformation, dewatering, and diagenesis: Illustrations from selected melange zones, in Maltman, A. (editor), The Geological Deformation of Sediments, Chapman & Hall (London), p. 240-260
Campbell, M.R., 1904, Conglomerate dikes in southern Arizona, American Geologist, 33, p. 135-138
Campbell, N.P., 1981, Geology of the Yakima Area, Yakima Valley College publication, 80 pgs.
Campbell, N.P., ………, Earthquake hazards study in the vicinity of Toppenish Basin, south-central Washington, Yakima Valley College Report
Carpenter, M.C., 1993, Earth-fissure movements associated with fluctuations in groundwater levels near the Picacho Mountains, south-central Arizona, 1980-1984, U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper, 497-H, 49 pgs.
Carson, R.J., 2001, Where the Rockies meet the Columbia Plateau: Geologic field trip from the Walla Walla Valley to the Wallowa Mountains, Oregon: Oregon Geology, 63, p. 13-16, 21-35
Carson, R.J.; McKhann, C.F.; Pizey, M.H., 1978, The Touchet beds of the Walla Walla Valley, in Baker, V.R.; Nummedal, D. (editors), The Channeled Scabland, A Guide to the Geomorphology of the Columbia Basin, Washington, NASA (Washington D.C.), p. 173-177
Case, E.C.; 1895, On the mud and sand dikes of the White River Miocene, American Geologist, 24, p. 248-254
Chapron, E.; Van Rensbergen, P.; De Batist, M.; Beck, C.; Henriet, J.P., 2004, Fluid-escape features as a precursor of a large sublacustrine sediment slide in Lake Le Bourget, NW Alps, France, Terra Nova, p. 305-311
Christiansen, F.W., 1952, Slump structures and associated "clastic intrusions" in Upper Jurassic sediments, Kane and Garfield Counties, Utah, GSA Bulletin, 63, p. 1359
Clague, J.J.; Naesgaard, E.; Nelson, A.R., 1997, Age and significance of earthquake-induced liquefaction near Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, Revue Canadienne de Geotechnique, 34, p. 53-62
Clauss, F.L, 1993, Estructuras indicatoras de paleosismicidad en el Neogeno de Arcos de la Frontera (SO de la Depresion del Guadalquivir), Bolivia Geologia y Minero, 104, p. 613-620
Clement, W.P., 2003, Imaging clastic dikes at the Hanford Site with ground penetrating radar, GSA Abstracts with Programs, 35, p. 449
Clement, W.P.; Murray, C.J., 2007, GPR imaging of clastic dikes at the Hanford Site, Hanford, Washington, Pacific Northwest National Lab Report, PNNL-SA-45501
Cojan, I.; Thiry, M., 1992, Seismicity induced deformation structures in Oligocene shallow marine and eolian coastal sands (Paris Basin), Tectonophysics, 206, p. 79-89
Collinson, J.D., 1994, Sedimentary deformational structures, in Maliman, A. (editor), The Geological Deformation of Sediments, Chapman & Hall (London), p. 95-125
Collinson, J.D.; Thompson, D.B., 1989, Sedimentary Structures, George Allen & Unwin (London), 194 pgs.
Cooley, S.W., 2008, Clastic Dikes: Climatic indicators of climate during late-glacial Missoula flooding? GSA Abstracts with Programs, 40, p. 242
Cooley, S.W., 1996, Timing and emplacement of clastic dikes in the Touchet Beds of south-central Washington, BA Thesis, Whitman College, 37 pgs.
Cooley, S.W.; Pidduck, B.K.; Pogue, K.R., 1995, Mechanism and timing of emplacement of clastic dikes in the Touchet Beds of the Walla Walla Valley, GSA Cordilleran Section Abstracts with Programs, 28, p. 57
Cornelius, K.D., 1967, Hydrothermal pebble dikes at Mount Morgan, Queensland, Economic Geology, 62, p. 853-860
Cosgrove, J.W., 2001, Hydraulic fracturing during the formation and development of a basin: A factor in the dewatering of low-permeability sediments, AAPG Bulletin, 87, p. 737-748
Costa, G.P.; Colalongo, M.L.; De iuli, C.; Marabini, S.; Masini, F.; Torre, D.; Vai, G.B., 1986, Latest Messinian vertebrate fauna preserved in a paleokarst-neptunian dike setting (Brisighella, Northern Apennines), Le grotte d’Italia, 12, p. 221-235
Counts, R.C., 2007, Liquefaction evidence for a strong earthquake in the lower Ohio River Valley during the Mid to Late Holocene, GSA South-central/North-central Sections Abstracts with Programs, 39, p. 4 (#4-3)
Cousineau, P.A., 1998, Large-scale liquefaction and fluidization in the Cap Chat Melange, Quebec Appalachians, Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 35, p. 1408-1422
Cowan, C.A.; James, N.P., 1992, Diastasis cracks: Mechanically generated synaersis-like cracks in Upper Cambrian shallow water oolite and ribbon carbonates, Sedimentology, 39, p. 1101-1118
Cox, R.T.; Gordon, J., 2009, Sand blows on Late Quaternary surfaces in northeast Louisiana, GSA Abstracts with Programs, 40, p. 151
Cozzi, A., 2000, Synsedimentary tensional features in Upper Triassic shallow-water platform carbonates of the Carnian Prealps (northern Italy) and their importance as paleostress indicators, Basin Research, 12, p. 133-146
Criss, R.E.; Cooke, G.A.; Day, S.D., 1988, An organic origin for the carbonate concretions of the Ohio Shale, U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin, 1836, 21 pgs
Crosby, W.O., 1897, Sandstone dikes accompanying the great fault of Ute Pass, Colorado, Essex Institute Bulletin, 27, p. 113-147
Cross, W., 1894, Intrusive sandstone dikes in granite, GSA Bulletin, 5, p. 225-230
Cuvier & Brongniart, 1822, Description geognostiques des Environs de Paris, p. 76, 134, 141
Daily, B.; Cooper, M.R., 1976, Clastic wedges and patterned ground in the Late Ordovician –Early Silurian tillites of South Africa, Sedimentology, 23, p. 271-283
Dalrymple, R.W., 1979, Wave-induced liquefaction: A modern example from the Bay of Fundy, Sedimentology, 26, p. 835-844
Damberger, H.H., 1969, Clastic dikes (veins) in Pennsylvanian coal seams of the Illinois Basin, GSA Abstracts with Programs, 7, p. 43
Dana, J.D., 1841, U.S. Exploration, during the years of 1838-1842, under the command of Charles Wilkes, U.S.N., Geology, 10, p. 654-656
Darwin, C., 1833-1834, Geological observations on the volcanic islands and parts of South America visited during the voyage of the H.M.S. “Beagle” (2nd Edition), p. 438
Darwin, C., 1833-1834, Geological observations on the volcanic islands and parts of South America visited during the voyage of the H.M.S. “Beagle” (2nd Edition), in Diller, J.S., 1890, Sandstone dikes, GSA Bulletin, 1
Davenport, C.A.; Ringrose, P.S., 1987, Deformation of Scottish Quaternary sedimentary sequences by strong earthquake motions, in Jones, M.E.; Preston, R.M.F. (editors), Deformation of Sedimentary Rocks, Geological Society (London) Special Paper, 29, p. 299-314
Davenport, C.A.; Lap, J.M.J.; Maurenbrecher, P.M.; Price, D.G., 1994, Liquefaction potential and dewatering injection structures at Herkenbosch: Field investigations of the effects of the 1992 Roermond earthquake, the Netherlands, Geologie en Mijinbouw, 73, p. 365-374
Decker, P.L., 1990, Style and Mechanics of Liquefaction-related Deformation, Lower Absoroka Volcanic Supergroup (Eocene), Wyoming, GSA Special Paper, 240, 71 pgs.
Demoulin, A., 1996, Clastic dykes in East Belgium; evidence for upper Pleistocene strong earthquakes west of the Lower Rhine rift segment, Journal of the Geological Society, 153, p. 803-810
Demoulin, A., 2003, Clastic (Neptunian) Dykes and Sills, in Middleton, G.V. (editor), Encyclopedia of Sediments and Sedimentary Rocks, Kluver Academic Publishers, p. 136-137
Dewhurst, D.N.; Cartwright, J.A.; Lonergan, L., 1999, The development of polygonal fault systems by syneresis of colloidal sediments, Marine and Petroleum Geology, 16, p. 793-810
Deynoux, M., 1982, Periglacial polygonal stuctures and sand-wedges in the Late Precambrian glacial formations of the Tauouden Basin in Adrar of Mauretania (West Africa), Palae…Palaeo Palaoecology, 39, p. 50-70…..
Deynoux, M.; Proust, J.N.; Durand, J.; Merino, E., 1990, Water-transfer structures in the Late Proterozoic eolian sanstones in the Taoudeni Basin, West Africa, Sedimentary Geology, 66, p. 227-242
Diggs, T.N., 1989, Sedimentology and structural geology of the Housetop Mountains/Castle Mountain Area, Marathon Basin, Trans-Pecos Texas, MA Thesis (#D569), University of Texas
Diller, J.S., 1890, Sandstone dikes, GSA Bulletin, 1, p. 411-442
Dionne, J.C.; Shilts, W.W., 1974, A Pleistocene clastic dike, Upper Chaudière Valley, Québec, Canadian Journal Earth Sciences, 11, p. 1594-1605
Dionne, J.C., 1973, Structures cylindriques verticales dans le Quaternaire a Arthabaska, Quebec, Sedimentary Geology, 9, p. 53-63
Dixon, R.J.; Schofiled, K.; Anderton, R.; Reynolds, A.D.; Alexander, R.W.S.; Williams, M.C.; Davies, K.G., 1995, Sandstone diapirism and clastic intrusion in the Tertiary submarine fans of the Bruce-Beryl Embayment, quadrant 9, UKCS, in Hartley, A.J.; Prosser, D.J., Characterization of Deep Marine Clastic Systems, Geological Society Special Publication (London), p. 77-94
Dobie, J., 1926, The “Clastic Dike” at Pullman, BS Thesis, Washington State University
Doig, R., 1991, Effects of strong seismic shaking in lake sediments, and earthquake recurrence interval, Temiscaming, Quebec, Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 28, p. 1349-52
Doig et al. 1993
Doty, G.; Rush, F.E., 1985, Inflow to a crack in playa deposits of Yucca Lake, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada,U.S. Geological Survey Water Resource Investigation Report, 84-4296, 24 pgs.
Drahovzal, J.A.; Hendricks, R.T., 1996, Geologic features relevant to ground-water flow in the vicinity of the Paducah gaseous diffusion plant, Final Report to Facilities Oversight Unit, Kentucky Geological Survey/University of Kentucky Report, 36 pgs. + maps, photos
Dreimanis, A., 1969
Dreimanis, A,; Rappol, M., 1997, Late Wisconsinan sub-glacial clastic intrusive sheets along the Lake Erie bluffs, at Bradtville, Ontario, Canada, Sedimentary Geology, 111, p. 225-248
Dreimanis, A., 1992, Downward injected till wedges and upward injected till dikes, Sveriges Geologiska Undersökning, 4, p. 91-96
Duck, R.W.; Herber, R.A., 2006, High-resolution shallow seismic identification of gas escape features in the sediments of Loch Tay, Scotland: Tectonic and microbiological associations, Sedimentology, 53, p. 481-493
Duncan, J.R., 1964, Structural significance of clastic dikes in a selected exposure of the Modelo Fm, Santa Monica Mountains, California, Southern California Academy of Sciences Bulletin, 63, p. 157-163
Duranti, D.; Hurst, A., 2004, Fluidization and injection in the deep-water sandstones of the Eocene Alba Fm (UK North Sea), Sedimentology, 51, p. 503
Duranti, D.; Hurst, A.; Bell, C.; Groves, S.; Hanson, R., 2002, Injected and remobilized sands from the Alba Field (Eocene, UKCS): Core and wireline characteristics, Petroleum Geoscience, 8, p. 99-107
Dylik, J., 1956, The periglacial structures at Tarzymiechy and their significance for the morphogeny and stratigraphy of the Quaternary, Biuletyn Peryglacyalny, 8, p. 107-118
Dzulynski, S., 1965, Experiments on clastic wedges, Bulletin of the Academy Pol. Sci, 13, p. 301-308
Dzulynski, S., 1965, New data on experimental production of sedimentary structures, Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, 35, p. 196-212
Dzulynski, S.; Radomski, A., 1957, Clastic dikes in the Carpathian flysch, Polskiego Towarzystwa Geol.
Rocznik Aunales, 26, p. 225-264
Dzulynski, S.; Walton, E.K., 1965, Developments in Sedimentology: Sedimentary Features in Flysch and Greywackes Volume 7, Elsevier (Amsterdam), 274 pgs.
Eby, G., 1921, Earth disturbances at Dixie, Washington, September 14, 1921, Seisfmological Society of America Bulletin, 11, p. 195-196
Edwards, A.R., 1941, Underground water resources of Chugwater Creek, Laramie River and North Laramie River valleys, Wyoming, Wyoming Geological Survey Bulletin, 32, p. 1-32 + 2 maps [see Fig 3, p.12]
Egan, M.; Al-Shukri, H.J., 2001, Enhanced evaluation of ejected materials from earthquake induced paleoliquefaction features using ground penetrating radar (abstract), Arkansas Academy of Science Annual Meeting
Ehlers, J., 1996, Quaternary and Glacial Geology, Wiley Publishers (New York), 578 pgs.
Eldridge, G.H., 1906, The formation of asphalt veins, Economic Geologist, 1, p. 437-444
Emmett, W.R.; Beaver, K.W.; McCaleb, J.A., 1971, Little Buffalo Basin Tensleep heterogeneity - its significance on drilling and secondary recovery, Journal of Petroleum Technology, February Issue, p. 161-168
Erslev, E., …….., The Colorado Front Range: A wellspring of change in Laramide concepts, in Colorado Scientific Society Symposium in Honor of William A. Braddock, p. 10-11
Eyles, N.; Paul, M.A., 1983, Chapter 5: Landforms and sediments resulting from former periglacial climates, in Eyles, N. (editor), Glacial Geology: An introduction for engineers and earth scientists, Pergamon Press (New York, NY), p. 111-139
Eyles, N.; Clark, B.M., 1985, Gravity-induced soft-sediment deformation in glaciomarine sequences of the Upper Proterozoic Port Askaig Fm, Scotland, Sedimentology, 32, p. 789-814
Farmin, R., 1934, Pebble dikes and associated mineralization at Tintic, Utah, Economic Geology, 29, p. 356-370
Fayer, M.J. et al., 2000, Hydrological measurements and hydrofacies models of clastic dikes at the Hanford Site, southcentral Washington, EOS Transactions, 81, p. F412
Fayer, M.J.; Ritter, J.S., 1999, Physical and hydraulic measurements of FY 1998 clastic dike samples, Letter Report to Fluor Daniel Northwest, Inc. (March 1999) by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (Richland, WA)
Fecht, K.R., 1999…………
Fecht, K.R.; Bjornstad, B.N..; Horton, D.G.; Last, G.V.; Reidel, S.P.; Lindsey, K.A., 1999, Clastic injection dikes of the Pasco Basin and vicinity, Bechtel Hanford Company/Washington State Division of Geology & Earth Sciences Geologic Atlas Series, BHI-01103 Revision 0
Fecht, K.R.; Lindsey, K.A.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Horton, D.G.; Last, G.V.; Reidel, S.P., 1998, Clastic injection dikes of the Pasco Basin and vicinity: Geologic Atlas Series, Bechtel Hanford Company Report, #BHI-01003 Draft A
Fiegel, G.L.; Kutter, B.L., 1994, Liquefaction mechanism for layered soils, Journal of Geotechnical Engineering (ASCE), 120, p. 737-755
Finn, W.D.L., Emery, J.J.; Gupta, Y.P., 1970, A shaking table study of the liquefaction of saturated sands during earthquakes, University of British Columbia Department of Civil Engineering Soil Mechanics Series, 17, 15 pgs.
Finn, W.D.L.; Pickering, D.J.; Bransby, P.L., 1969, Sand liquefaction in triaxial and simple shear tests, University of British Columbia Department of Civil Engineering Soil Mechanics Series, 11, p. 47 pgs.
Flisch, A.; Becker, A., 2003, Industrial X-Ray computed tomography studies of lake sediment drill cores, Geological Society Special Publication, 215, p. 206-212
Florin, V.A.; Ivanov, P.L., 1961, Liquefaction of saturated sandy soils, 5th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering Proceedings, 1, p. 107-111
Freeman, E.J.; Khaleel, R.; Heller, P.R., 2001, A catalog of vadose zone hydraulic properties for the Hanford Site, Fluor Federal Services/UFA Ventures Report to U.S. Department of Energy, Contract #DE-AC06-76RLO-1830, 62 pgs.
Frost, N.; Carpenter, D.; Kerans, C., 2006, Platform-margin trajectory as a control on Neptunian dike distributions, Devonian reef complexes, Canning Basin, Western Australia (abstract), Meeting of the Petroleum Exploration Society of Australia (PESA): Fractured Reservoir Controls
Gallo, F.; Woods, A.W., 2004, On steady homogeneous sand-water flows in a vertical conduit, Sedimentology, 51, p. 195-210
Garcia, G.C., 1966, Los diques clasticos, Geologia y Metalurgia, 3, p. 25-34
Ghiglione, M.C., 2002, Diques clásticos asociados a deformación transcurrente en depósitos sinorogénicos del Mioceno inferior de la Cuenca Austral, Revista de la Asociacion Geologica Argentina, 57, p.103-118
Goldthwait, J.W.; Goldthwait, L.; Goldthwait, R.P., 1951, Geology of New Hampshire, Part 1: Surficial Geology, New Hampshire State Planning and Development Commission, 44 pgs.
Goodman, R.E.; Appuhn, R.A., 1965, Model studies on magnification of earthquake motion in soil-filled basins (abstract), GSA Special Paper, 87, p. 205-206
Govindaraju, R.S.; Reddi, L.N.; Bhargava, S.K., 1996, International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences and Geomechanics Abstracts, 33, p. 162A
Greb, S.F.; Ettensohn, F.R.; Obermeier, S.F., 2002, Developing a classification scheme for seismites, North-central & Southeastern Section GSA Abstracts with Programs, 42-0
Gregory, M.R., 1969, Sedimentary features and penecontemporaneous slumping in the Waitemata Group, Whangaparaoa Peninsula, North Aukland, New Zealand, New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, 12, p. 248-282
Gregory, H.E., 1951, Geology and geography of the Paunsaugunt region, Utah, U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper, 164
Gresley, W.S., 1898, Clay-veins vertically intersecting coal measures, GSA Bulletin, 9, p. 35-38
Grolier, M.J.; Bingham, J.W., 1978, Geology of parts of Grant, Adams, and Franklin Counties, east-central Washington, Washington State Division of Geology and Earth Resources Bulletin, 71, 91 pgs.
Groshong, R.H., 1988, Low-temperature deformation mechanism and their interpretation, GSA Bulletin, 100, p. 1329-1360
Guhman, A.I.; Pederson, D.T., 1992, Boiling sand springs, Dismal River, Nebraska: Agent for formation of vertical cylindrical structures and geomorphic change, Geology, 20, p. 8-10
Guiraud, M.; Plaziat, J.C., 1993, Seismites in the fluviatile Bima sandstones: Identification of paleoseisms and discussion of the magnitudes in a Cretaceous synsedimentary strike-slip basin (Upper Bunue, Nigeria), Tectonophysics, 98, p. T7-T14
Haluszczak, A., 2007, Dike-filled extensional structures in Cenozoic deposits of the Kleszczow Graben (Central Poland), Sedimentary Geology, 193, p. 81-92
Hamelin, L-E.; Cook, F.A., 1967, Illustrated Glossary of Periglacial Phenomena, Les Presses de L’Universite Laval (Quebec), 237 pgs.
Hancock, P.L., 1985, Brittle microtectonics: Principles and practice, Journal of Structural Geology, 7, p. 437-457
Hardie, J.K., 1999, Clastic Dikes Intruding Cretaceous Coals of Western Colorado, Colorado Geological Survey, Bulletin 53, 48 pgs.
Harp, E.L.; Wells, W.G.; Sarmiento, J.G., 1990, Pore pressure response during failure in soils, GSA Bulletin, 102, p. 428-438
Hannum, C., 1980, Sandstone and conglomerate — breccia pipes and dikes of Kodachrome Basin area, Kane County, Utah, Brigham Young University Geology Studies, 27, p. 31-50
Harms, J.C., 1965, Sandstone dikes in relation to Laramide faults and stress distribution in the southern Front Range, Colorado, GSA Bulletin, 76, p. 981-1002
Hausner, G.W., 1950, The mechanism of sandblows, Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 48, p. 155-161
Hawley and Hart
Hay, R., 1892, Sandstone dikes in northwestern Nebraska, GSA Bulletin, 3, p. 50-55
Hedberg, H.D., 1926, The effect of gravitational compaction on the structure of sedimentary rocks, AAPG Bulletin, 10, p. 1035-1072
Hedenquist, J.W.; Henley, R.W., 1985, Hydrothermal eruptions in the Waiotapy geothermal system, New Zealand: Their origin, associated breccias, and relation to precious metal mineralization, Economic Geology, 80, p. 1640-1668
Heiken, G.; Wohletz, K.; Eichelberger, J., 1998, Fracture fillings and intrusive pyroclasts, Inyo Domes, California, Journal of Geophysical Research, 93, p. 4335-4350
Helm, D.C., 2000, Fissures in Yucca Flat dry lake bed, Nevada test site, in Looney, B.B.; Falta, R.W. (editors), Vadose Zone Science and Technology Solutions, Battelle Press (Columbus, OH), CD-ROM format publication
Helm, D.C., 1994, Hydraulic forces that play a role in generating fissures at depth, Bulletin of the Association of Engineering Geologists, 31, p. 293-304
Heron, S.D.; Judd, J.B.; Johnson, H.S., 1971, Clastic dikes associated with soil horizons in the North and South Carolina coastal plain, GSA Bulletin, 82, p. 1801-1810
Heron, S.D.; Johnson, H.S.; Pooser, W.K., 1965, Clastic dikes in the western coastal plain of South Carolina (abstract), GSA Special Paper, 87, p. 248
Hesse, R.; Reading, H.G., 1978, Subaqueous clastic fissures and other examples of sedimentary transposition in the lacustrine Horton Bluff Fm (Mississippian), Nova Scotia, Canada, Special Publication of the International Association of Sedimentologists, 2, p. 241-257
Hill, J.L.; Bauer, E.R., 1984, An investigation of the causes of cutter roof failure in a central Pennsylvania coal mine: A case study, American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers 25th Symposium on Rock Mechanics (Evanston IL), #84-0603
Hiscott, R.N., 1979, Clastic sills and dikes associated with deep-water sandstones, Tourelle Fm, Ordovician, Quebec, Journal of Sedimentary Research, 49, p. 1-10
Hoek, J.D., 1991, A classification of dyke-fracture geometry with examples from Precambrian dyke swarms in Vestfold Hills, Anarctica, International Journal of Earth Sciences, 80, p. 233-248
Hoff, W.; Kinkade, J.; Mertes, J.; Schneiderwind, S.; Weihs, B.; Maher, H., 2007, Chalcedony vein strike uniformity within the Chadron Formation of Badlands National Park (poster), Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, 39, p. 326
Holly, R.J.H.; Lonergan, L., 2002, Mechanisms and controls on the formation of sand intrusions, Journal of Geological Society (London), 159, p. 605-617
Holzer, T.L., 1984, Ground failure induced by groundwater withdrawal from unconsolidated sediments, in Holzer, T.L. (editor), GSA Reviews in Engineering Geology VI, p. 67-105
Holzer, T.L.; Clark, M.M., 1993, Sand boils without earthquakes, Geology, 21, p. 873-876
Hudgins, J.A.; Spray, J.G., 2006, Lunar impact-fluidized dikes: Evidence from Apollo 17 Station 7, Taurus-Littrow Valley, Lunar and Planetary Science, 37, p. 1176
Hulen, J.B.; Nielson, D.L.; Little, T.M., 1991, Evolution of the western Valles caldera complex, New Mexico: Evidence from intracaldera sandstones, breccias, and surge deposits, Journal of Geophysical Research, 96, p. 8127-8142
Huntoon, P.W., 2005, Mesoscopic strain and stress indicators at Upheaval dome, Utah, that support an impact origin, GSA Rocky Mountain Section Abstracts with Programs, 37, p. 4
Hunter, R.E.; Gelfenbaum, G.; Rubin, D.M., 1992, Clastic pipes of probable solution-collapse origin in Jurassic rocks of the southern San Juan Basin, New Mexico, U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin, 1808-L, 19 pgs.
Hurst, A.; Cartwright, J., 2007, Sand injectites: Implications for hydrocarbon exploration and production, AAPG Memoir, 87, p. 274
Hurst, A.; Cartwright, J.; Huuse, M.; Jonk, R.; Schwab, A.; Duranti, D.; Cronin, B., 2003, Significance of large-scale sand injectites as long-term fluid conduits: Evidence from seismic data, Geofluids, 3, p. 263
…………., 2002, Technical Article: Conical sandstone injection structures imaged by 3D seismic in the central North Sea, UK, First Break, 20, p. 383-393……..check injected sands group………
Huuse, M.; Duranti, D.; Guargena, C.G.; Prat, P.; Holm, K.; Steinsland, N.; Cronin, B.T.; Hurst, A.; Cartwright, J., 2003, Sandstone intrusions: Detection and significance for exploration and production, First Break, 21, p. 33-42
Hyashi, T., 1966, Clastic dikes in Japan, Japanese Journal of Geology and Geography, Transactions and Abstracts, 37, p. 1-20
Hyashi, T., 1957, Sandstone dikes in the Miocene of Chira Peninsula (article in Japanese), Bulletin Aichi Gakugei University, 6, p. 69-76
Imamuara, S., 1935, On sandstone dikes cropping out in the bed of the Koyabe River, Toyama Prefecture (article in Japanese), Chikyu/The Globe, 23, p. 246
Injected Sands Group, University of Aberdeen/University of Cardiff, Research team: Duranti, D.; Huuse, M.; Hurst, A.; Cartwright, J.; Cronin, B.; Jonk, R.; Shoulders, S., www.abdn.ac.uk/~wpg010/isghome.php
Jachens, R.C.; Holzer, T.L., 1982, Differential compaction mechanism for earth fissures near Casa Grande, Arizona, GSA Bulletin, 93, p. 998-1012
Jaeger, H.M.; Nagel, S.R.; Behringer, R.P., 1996, The physics of granular materials, Physics Today, 21, p. 873-876
Jackson, C.A-L., in review, The geometry, distribution, and development of clastic injectites in deep-marine depositional systems: Examples from the Late Cretaceous Kyrre Formation, Maloy Slope, Norwegian margin, 48 pgs.
Jackson, C.; Stoddart, D., 2005, Temporal constraints on the growth and decay of large-scale mobilized mud masses and implications for fluid flow mapping in sedimentary basins, Terra Nova, 17, p. 580-585
Jackson, M.P.A.; Schultz-Ela, D.D.; Hudec, M.R.; Watson, I.A.; Porter, M.L., 1998, Structure and evolution of Upheaval Dome: A pinched-off salt diapir, GSA Bulletin, 110, p. 1547-1573
Jenkins, O.P., 1925, Mechanisms of clastic dike intrusion, Engineering and Mining Journal, 120, p. 12
Jenkins, O.P., 1925, Clastic dikes of southeastern Washington (abstract), GSA Bulletin, 36, p. 202
Jenkins, O.P., 1925, Clastic dikes of eastern Washington and their geologic significance, American Journal of Science, 10, p. 234-246
Jessey, D.R., 2007, A field trip guide to Owens Valley/Mammoth Lakes: Cenozoic/Mesozoic volcanism of the eastern Sierra Nevada, http://geology.csupomona.edu/docs/DAY1.pdf
Johnson, H.D., 1977, Sedimentation and water escape structures in some late Precambrian shallow marine sandstones from Finnmark, North Norway, Sedimentology, 24, p. 389-411
Johnson, S.Y., 1986, Water escape structures in coarse grained volcanic fluvial deposits of the Ellensburg Fm, south central Washington, Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, 56, p. 905-910
Johnson, W. H., 1990, Ice-wedge casts and relict patterned ground in central Illinois and their environmental significance, Quaternary Research, 33, p. 51-72
Johnsson, G., 1959, True and false ice-wedges in southern Sweden, Geografiska Annaler, 41, p. 15-33
Jolly, R.J.H.; Lonergran, L., 2002, Mechanisms and controls on the formation of sand intrusions, Journal of the Geological Society, 159, p. 605-617
Jolly, R.J.H.; Longergan, L.; Dewhurst, D.N., 1998, Thickness and spatial distributions of clastic dykes, northwest Sacramento Valley, California, Journal of Structural Geology, 20, p. 1663-1672
Jones, A.P.; Omoto, K., 2000, Towards establishing criteria for identifying trigger mechanisms for soft-sediment deformation: A case study of Late Pleistocene lacustrine sands and clays, Onikobe and Nakayamadaira Basins, northeastern Japan, Sedimentology, 47, p. 1211-1226
Jonk, R.; Kelly, J.; Parnell, J., 2004, The origin and tectonic significance of Lewisian- and Torridonian-hosted clastic dykes near Gairloch, NW Scotland, Scottish Journal of Geology, 40, p. 123-130
Jonk, R.; Parnell, J.; Hurst, A., 2005, Aqueous and petroleum fluid flow associated with sand injectites, Basin Research, 17, p. 241-257
Jungst, H., 1934, Zur geologischen bedeutung der synarese (Geological significance of syneresis), Geologische Rundschau, 25, p. 321-325
Kaatz, M.R., 1959, Patterned ground in central Washington: A preliminary report, Northwest Science, 33, p. 145-156
Kasse, C.; Bohncke, S., 2001, Early Pleistocene fluvial and estuarine records of climate change in southern Netherlands and northern Belgium, in Maddy, D.; Macklin, M.G.; Woodward, J.C. (editors), River Basin Sediment Systems: Archives of environmental change, ………publisher………p. 171-193
Kenkmann, T.; Wittmann, A.; Scherler, D., 2004, Structure and impact indicators of the Cretaceous sequence of the ICDP drill core Yaxcopoil-1, Chicxulub impact crater, Mexico, Meteorics and Planetary Science, 39, p. 1019, 1247
Khaleel, R., 1999, Far-field hydrology data package for immobilized low-activity tank waste performance assessment, Fluor Daniel Northwest, Inc. Report, #HNF-4769 Revision 1, 67 pgs.
Khaleel, R., 1998, Work plan for measurement and analysis of hydraulic properties for clastic dikes and ILAW Borehole No. 1 sediment samples, January, 1998, Fluor Daniel Northwest, Inc. Report
Khullar, V.K.; Gadhoke, S.K.; Kumar, G., 1997, Earthquake induced structures in Quaternary sediments, Indogangetic Plain, Uttar Pradesh, India, Geosciences Journal, 18, p. 73-78
Kietzman, D.R., 1985, Paleomagnetic survey of the Touchet Beds in Burlingame Canyon of southeastern Washington, MS Thesis, Eastern Washington University, 150 pgs.
Kietzmann, D.R.; Steele, W.K., 1986, Preliminary paleomagnetic results from the Touchet beds of Burlingame Canyon, southeast Washington, 59th Northwest Scientific Association Meeting Abstracts, Abstract #103
Kincaid, C.T., 1999, Candidate and study set criteria and proposed scoping studies [Hanford Site], 5 pgs.
Kleesment, A.; Puura, V., 2003, Clastic dikes in Devonian of Estonia, in The Baltic Sea Region: Formation and Deformation of the Crust, Proceedings from a seminar in Tartu, Estonia
Kleesment, A.; Puura, V.; Kallaste, T., 2003, Clastic dikes in Middle Devonian sandstones of the Gauja Formation, southeastern Estonia. Proceedings of the Estonian Academy of Sciences. Geology, 52, p. 155-178
Kocurek, G.; Hunter, R.E., 1986, Origin of polygonal fractures in sand, uppermost Navajo and Page sandstones, Page, AZ, Journal of Sedimentary Research, 56
Kolb, C.R., 1976, Geologic controls of sand boils along Mississippi River levees, in Coats, D.R. (editor), Geomorphology and Engineering, Halstead Press, p. 99-114
Kost, L.S., 1984, Paleomagnetic and petrographic study of sandstone dikes and the Cambrian Sawatch Sandstone, east flank of the southern Front Range, Colorado, MS Thesis, University of Colorado, 173 pgs.
Kotani, H., 1936, On the mudstone dikes in the coast of Torinosu Peninsula, Tanabe Bay, Wakayama Prefecture (article in Japanese), Chikyu/The Globe, 25, p. 354-364
Krull, E.S., 1999, Permian Palsa Mires as paleoenvironmental proxies, Palaios, 14, p. 530-544
Krull, E.S.; Retallack, G.J., 1995, Clastic dikes as evidence for discontinuous permafrost paleoclimate in Permian coal Measures, Allan Hills Antarctica, GSA Abstracts with Programs, 27, p. A265
Kuehn, S.C., 1995, The Olympic-Wallowa Lineament, Hite Fault system, and Columbia River Basalt Group stratigraphy in northeast Umatilla County, Oregon, M.S. Thesis, Washington State University
Kumano, S., 1958, Observation of shale dikes penetrating sandstone bed (article in Japanese), Shinseidai-no-kenkyu/The Cenozoic Research, 28, p. 663
Lade, P.V., 1992, Static instability and liquefaction of loose fine sandy slopes, Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, 18, p. 51-69
Lambert, P., 1981, Breccia dikes: Geological constraints on the formation of a complex crater, in Schultz, P.H.; Merrill, R.B. (editors), Multi-ring Basins: Formation and evolution, Pregamon Press (New York, NY), p. 163-184
Landtwing, M.R., 1998, Breccias in the Cu-Mo-Au prospect at Agua Rica, Argentina: Evolution of a magmatic-hydrothermal system during progressive unroofing, MS Thesis, ETH Zurich, 60 pgs.
Landtwing, M.R.; Dillenbeck, E.D.; Leake, M.H.; Heinrich, C.A., 2002, Evolution of the breccia-hosted porphyry Cu-Mo-Au deposit at Agua Rica, Argentina: Progressive unroofing of a magmatic hydrothermal system, Economic Geology, 97, p. 1273-1292
Larsen, E.; Mangerud, 1992, Subglacially formed clastic dikes, Sveriges Geologiska Undersokning, 81, p. 163-170
Lathan, R.; Reidel, S., 2003, Waste filtration in clastic dikes, Environmental Science at PNL student research abstracts, https://www.scied.science.doe.gov/scied/Abstracts2002/PNNLenv.htm
Lawler, T.B., 1923, On the occurrence of sandstone dike and chalcedony veins in the White River Oligocene, American Journal of Science, 5, p. 160-172
Leavitt, E.D.; Spell, T.L.; Goldstrand, P.M.; Arehart, G.B., 2004, Geochronology of the Midas low-sulfidation epithermal gold-silver deposit, Elko County, Nevada, Economic Geology, 99, p. 1665-1686
Lenz et al……2007……GSA Abstracts with Programs
Leva, M., 1959, Fluidization, MacGraw Hill Publishers (New York, NY)
Levi, T.; Weinberger, R.; Aïfa, T.; Eyal, Y.; Marco, S., 2006, Injection mechanism of clay-rich sediments into dikes during earthquakes, Geochemistry, Geophysics and Geosystems, 7, Q12009
Levi, T.; Sheva, B.; Weinberger, R., 2006, Earthquake-induced clastic dikes detected by anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility, 5th International Dyke Conference Abstracts (Rovaniemi, Finland)
Levi, T.; Weinberger, R.; Aifa, T.; Eyal, Y.; Marco, S., 2006, Earthquake-induced clastic dikes detected by anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility, Geology, 34, p. 69-72
Lewandowski, M., 1999, A palaeomagnetic study of fracture fills in the Holy Cross Mountains of central Poland and its application in dating tectonic processes, Geophysical Journal International, 137, p. 783-792
Li, Y.; Craven, J.; Schweig, E.S.; Obermeier, S.F., 1996, Sand boils induced by the 1993 Mississippi River flood: Could they one day be misinterpreted as earthquake-induced liquefaction?, Geology, 24, p. 171-174
Lofgren, B.E., 1978, Hydraulic stresses cause ground movement and fissures, Picacho, Arizona, GSA Abstracts with Programs, 10, p. 113
Lonergan, L., 2001, Giant fluidized and injected sandbodies in the North Sea Basin – An indicator of shallow hydrocarbon venting in Paleocene-Eocene times?, Earth Systems Processess Global Meeting Abstracts, Abstract #T15
Lonergan, L.; Lee, N.; Johnson, H.D.; Cartwright, J.A.; Jolly, R.J.H., 2000, Remobilization and injection in deepwater depositional systems: Implications for reservoir architecture and prediction, 20th GCSSEPM Foundation Annual Research Conference: Deep-water Reservoirs of the World, p. 515-532
Lonergan, L.; Cartwright, J., 1999, Polygonal faults and their influence on deep-water sandstone reservoir geometries, Alba Field, United Kingdom Central North Sea, AAPG Bulletin, 83, p. 410-432
Lorenz, J., 2007, Fractures and strain accommodations in the Tensleep Formation at Flat Top Anticline, Carbon County, WY: Implications for analogy reservoir systems, Enhanced Oil Recovery Institute Technical Report, 92 pgs.
Lowe, D.R., 1975, Water escape structures in coarse-grained sediments, Sedimentology, 22, p. 157-204
Lowe, D.R., 1976, Subaqueous liquefied and fluidized sediment flows and their deposits, Sedimentology, 23, p. 285-308
Lovett, C.K., 1984, Paleomagnetism of the Touchet Beds of the Walla Walla River Valley, southeastern Washington, MS Thesis, Eastern Washington University, 161 pgs.
Lupher, R.L., 1944, Clastic dikes of the Columbia Basin region, Washington and Idaho, GSA Bulletin, 55, p. 1431-1461
Majer, E.L.; Williams, K.H.; Peterson, J.E.; Daley, T.M., 2002, High resolution imaging of vadose zone transport using cross-well radar and seismic methods, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Report, 29 pgs.
Macar, P., 1969, A peculiar type of fossil ice fissure, in Pewe, T.L., 1969, The Periglacial Environment, McGill-Queens University Press (Montreal, Quebec), p. 337-342 pgs.
Madison, M.P., 2007, The origins of clastic dikes within Badlands National Park, SD, GSA Abstracts with Programs, 39, p. 229 (#83-41)
Mallarino, G., 2002, Neptunian dikes along submarine escarpments: Examples from the Jurassic of Monte Kumeta (Sicily), Bollettino della Societa Geologica Italiana, 121, p. 377-390
Mangerud, J.; Soenstegaard, E.; Sejrup, H-P; Haldorsen, S., 1981, A continuous Eemian-early Weichselian sequence containing pollen and marine fossils at Fjoesanger, western Norway, Boreas, 10, p. 137-208
Mann, C.J.; Kanagy, S.P., 1990, Angles of repose that exceed modern angles, Geology, 18, p. 358-361
Mann, F.M., 2000, Data packages for the Hanford immobilized low activity tank waste performance assessment 2001 Version SEC 1-5, Hanford Environmental Management Report, HNF-5636 Revision 0, Contract #AC06-96RL13200, 1769 pgs.
Marco, S.; Weinberger, R.; Agnon, A., 2002, Radial clastic dykes formed by a salt diapir in the Dead Sea Rift, Israel, Terra Nova, 14, p. 288-294
Marco, S.; Eyal, Y.; Weinberger, R.; Levi, T.; Aifa, T., 2008, Characterization of earthquake-induced clastic dikes by their magnetic fabric, International Geological Congress (Oslo)
Marsshalko, R., 1965, Clastic dykes and their relations to syndedimentary movements, Geol. Pr. Bratisl., 36, p. 139-148
Martel, A.T.; Gibling, M.R., 1993, Clastic dykes of the Devono-Carboniferous Horton Bluff Fm, Nova Scotia: Storm-related structures in shallow lakes, Sedimentary Geology, 87, p. 103-119
Martill, D.M.; Hudson, J.D., 1989, Injection clastic dikes in the Lower Oxford Clay (Jurassic) of central England: Relationship to compaction and concretion formation, Sedimentology, 36, p. 1127-1133
Martin, J., 1995, Touchet Bed clastic dikes, Unpublished notes (Whitman College)
Mashchak, M.S.; Ezersky, V.A., 1980, Clastic dikes of the Kara Crater Pai Khoi, Lunar and Planetary Sciences, 11, p. 680-682
Mashchak, M.S.; Ezersky, V.A., 1982, Clastic dikes in the impactites and allogenic breccias of the Kara astrobleme (northeast slope of the Pai-Khoi Range) (article in Russian), Lithology and Economic Minerals, 1, p. 130-136
Mashchak, M.S.; Fedorova, I.G., 1987, Composition and conditions of the formation of clastic dykes in tagamites of the Popigai astrobleme (article in Russian), Meteroritika, 46, p. 124-127
Matsaitis, V.L., 2005, Redistribution of lithologies in impact-induced dikes of impact structures, in Koeberl, C.; Henkel, H. (editors), Impact Tectonics, Springer (The Netherlands), p. 111-130
Mayes, M.A.; Jardine, P.; Perfect, E.; McKay, L., 2004, The influence of natural sedimentary layering upon solute transport, USDOE Environmental Remediation Sciences Division Tank Farm Vadose Zone Group/Oak Ridge National Lab/CH2M Hill report, 31 pgs.
Mazumder, R.; Rodriguez-Lopez, J.P.; Arima, M.; van Loon, A.J., 2009, Palaeoproterozoic seismites (fine-grained facies of the Chaibasa Formation, east India) and their soft-sediment deformation structures, Geological Society Special Publication, 323, p. 301-318
McCalpin, J., 1996, Paleoseismicity, Academic Press (NY), 588 pgs.
McCallie, S.W., 1903, Sandstone dikes near Columbus, Georgia, American Geologist, 32, p. 199-202
McMillan, J.M., 1931, Clastic dike in Fort Hayes chalk, Kansas, AAPG Bulletin, 15, p. 842-847
McNulty, W.E.; Obermeier, S.F., 1999, Liquefaction evidence for at least two strong Holocene paleo-earthquakes in central and southwestern Illinois, USA, Environmental and Engineering Geology, 5, p. 133-146
McRoberts, E.C.; Sladen, J.A., 1992, Observations on static and cyclic sand liquefactions methodologies, Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 29, p. 650-655
Mears, B., 1965, Ice-wedge pseudomorphs in the Laramie Basin, Wyoming (abstract), GSA Special Paper, 87, p. 295
Meek, C.E., 1928, Genesis of a sandstone dike as indicated by heavy minerals, AAPG Bulletin, 12, p. 271-277
Menzies, J.; Taylor, J., 2003, Seismically induced soft-sediment microstructures (seismites) from Meikleour, western Strathmore, Scotland, Boreas, 32, p. 314-327
Merguerian, C.; Sanders, J.E., 1995, Late syn-intrusive clastic dikes at the base of the Palisades intrusive sheet, Fort Lee, New Jersey, imply a shallow (~3 to 4 km) depth of intrusion, in Hanson, G.N. (editor), Geology of Long Island and Metropolitan New York/Long Island Geologists Program with Abstracts, p. 54-63
Michetti, A.M.; Hancook, P.L.,……..Earthquakes and geology……p. 4-5……..
Middleton, G.V. (editor), 2003, Encyclopedia of Sediments and Sedimentary Rocks, Kluver Academic Publishers, 821 pgs.
Mii, H., 1953, Clastic dikes in the Akyu group in the western hilly region of Sendai, Tohoku University Institute of Geology and Paleontology Short Papers, 5, p. 51-66
Miller, J.F., 1996, Structural geology of the Ohio Shale, MS thesis, Ohio State University, 152 pgs.
Mills, P.C., 1983, Genesis and diagnostic value of soft-sediment deformation structures – a review, Sedimentary Geology, 35, p. 83-104
Miyamoto, H.; Komatsu, G.; Baker, V.R.; Dohm, J.M.; Ito, K.; Tosaka, H., 2007, Cataclysmic Scabland flooding: Insights from a simple depth-averaged numerical model, Environmental Modelling & Software, 22, p. 1400-1408
Moench, R.H., 1966, Relation of S2 schistosity to metamorphosed clastic dikes, Rangely-Phillips area, Maine, GSA Bulletin, 77, p. 1449-1461
Mohindra, R., 1995, Seismically induced soft sediment deformation structures (seismites) around Sumdo in the lower Spiti valley (Tethys Himalaya), Sedimentary Geology, 101, 69-83
Molina, J.M.; Ruiz-Ortiz, P.A.; Vera, J.A., 1995, Neptunian dykes and associated features in southern Spain: Mechanics of formation and tectonic implications, Sedimentology, 42, p. 957-969
Molyneux, S.J.; Cartwright, J.; Lonergan, L., 2002, Conical sandstone injection structures imaged by 3D seismic in the central North Sea, UK, First Break, 20, p. 383-393
Monecke, K., 2004, Earthquake-induced deformation structures in lake deposits – a Late Pleistocene to Holocene paleoseismic record for central Switzerland, PhD Dissertation, ETH Zurich, 158 pgs.
Monroe, J.N., 1932, Origin of the clastic dikes of the Rockwell area, Texas, Baylor University Report
Monroe, W.H., 1932, Earth cracks in Mississippi, AAPG Bulletin, 16, p. 214-215
Morgan, L.A.; Shanks, W.C.; Lovalvo, D.; Webring, M.; Lee, G.; Stephenson, W.J.; Johnson, S.Y., ……., Mapping the floor of Yellowstone Lake: New discoveries from high-resolution sonar imaging, seismic-reflection profiling, and submersible studies, U.S. Geological Survey/National Park Service/George Wright Society Proceedings of the 6th Bicentennial Scientifc Conference, p. 148-171
Morton, G.R., 2002, Why clastic dykes don’t indicate a global flood, Self-published article, http://home.entouch.net/dmd/clasdyke.htm
Munson, P.J.; Munson, C.A.; Pond, E.C., 1995, Paleoliquefaction evidence for a strong Holocene earthquake in south-central Indiana, Geology, 23, p. 325-328
Murchison, 1827, Transactions of the Geological Society of London, 2nd Series, v. 2, p. 304
Murray, C.J.; Ward, A.; Wilson, J.L., 2003, Influence of clastic dikes on vertical migration of contaminants in the vadose zone at Hanford, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Report, #PNNL-14224, 35 pgs.
Murray, C.J.; Ward, A.L.; Wilson, J.L.; Long, P.E.; Lechler, B.J.; Clement, W.P.; Kannberg, P.K.; Gee, G.W., 2001, The effects of clastic dikes on vadose zone transport at the Hanford Site, southcentral Washington, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, 82, Abstract #F502
Murray, C.J.; Horton, D.G.; Ward, A.L.; Gee, G.W., 2001, Hydrogeological influence of clastic dikes on vadose zone transport,……………
Murray, C., et al., 2000, Hydrogeological measurements and hydrofacies models of clastic dikes at the Hanford Site, southcentral Washington, SEPM/IAS Research Conference on Environmental Sedimentology: Hydrogeology of sedimentary aquifers
Nagabuchi, M., 1952, On sandstone dikes in Kushiro, Hokkaido (article in Japanese), Tanko-Gijutsu/Coal Mining Technique, 7
National Research Council, 1985, Liquefaction of Soils During Earthquakes, National Academy Press, 240 pgs.
Neef, G., 1991, A clastic dike-sill assemblage in late Miocene (c. 6 Ma) strata, Annedale, northern Wairarapa, New Zealand, New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, 34, p. 87-91
Neill, A.W.; Leckey, E.H.; Pogue, K.R., 1997, Pleistocene dikes in Tertiary rocks – Downward emplacement of Touchet Bed clastic dikes into co-seismic fissures, south-central Washington, GSA Abstracts with Programs, 29, p. 55
Neitzel, D.A., et al., 1996, Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Report, #PNL-6415 Revision 9
Nelson, W.J., 2005, Preliminary geologic map of the Freeburg Quadrangle, St. Clair County, Illinois, Illinois Geological Survey
Netoff, D., 2002, Seismogenically induced fluidization of Jurassic erg sands, south-central Utah, Sedimentology, 49, p. 65
Neumann-Mahlkau, P., 1976, Recent sand volcanoes in the sand of a dike under construction, Sedimentology, 23, p. 421-425
Newcomb, R.C., 1962, Hydraulic injection of clastic dikes in the Touchet Beds, Washington, Oregon, and Idaho, Geological Society of Oregon Country Geological Newsletter, 28, p. 70
Newcomb, R.C., 1965, Geology and ground water resources of the Walla Walla River basin, Washington-Oregon, Water Supply Bulletin, 21
Newsom, J.F., 1903, Clastic dikes, GSA Bulletin, 14, p. 227-268
Nichols, R.J., 1995, The liquefaction and remobilization of sandy sediments, in Hartley, A.J.; Prosser, D.J., Characterization of Deep Marine Clastic Systems, Geological Society Special Publication (London), p. 63-76
Nichols, R.J.; Sparks, R.S.J.; Wilson, C.J.N., 1994, Experimental studies of the fluidization of layered sediments and the formation of fluid escape structures, Sedimentology, 41, p. 233-253
Nichols, W.E.; Last, G.V.; Kincaid, C.T., 2005, Vadose zone modeling of dispersed waste sites in the framework of an integrated stochastic environmental transport and impacts assessment code for the Hanford Site, Stochasitc Environmental Resources Risk Assessment, 19, p. 24-32
Niem, A.R.; Niem, W.A., 1985, Oil and Gas Investigation of the Astoria Basin, Clatsop and northernmost Tillamook Counties, northwest Oregon, Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries, Oil and Gas Investigations Map 14, 1:100,000 scale
Niles, K., 2006, Memo from Assistant Director of OR Dept. of Energy to Mary Beth Burandt (U.S. DOE) as part of comments on Hanford Tank Closure and Waste Management EIS (TC & WM EIS), 6 pgs., http://www.oregon.gov/ENERGY/NUCSAF/docs/TC-WM-EIS_Scoping.pdf
Nomade, J.; Chapron, E.; Desmet, M.; Reyss, J-L.; Arnaud, F.; Lignier, V., 2005, Reconstructing historical seismicity from lake sediments (Lake Laffrey, Western Alps, France), Terra Nova, 17, p. 350-357
Obermeier, S.F., 1998, Liquefaction evidence for strong earthquakes of Holocene and latest Pleistocene ages in the states of Indiana and Illinois, USA, Engineering Geology, 50, p. 227-254
Obermeier, S.F., 1998, Seismic liquefaction features: Examples from paleoseismic investigations in the continental United States, U.S. Geological Survey Open File Report, 98-488
Obermeier, S.F., 1996a, Use of liquefaction-induced features for paleoseismic analysis – an overview of how seismic liquefaction features can be distinguished from other features and how their regional distribution and properties of source sediment can be used to infer the location and strength of Holocene paleoearthquakes, Engineering Geology, 44, 1-76
Obermeier, S.F., 1996b, Using liquefaction-induced features for paleoseismic analysis, in McCalpin, J.P. (editor), Paleoseismicity, Academic Press (NY), p. 331-396
Obermeier, S.F., 1989, The New Madrid Earthquakes: An engineering-geologic interpretation of relict liquefaction features, U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper, 1336-B
Obermeier, S.F.; Bleuer, N.R.; Munson, P.J.; Martin, W.S.; McWilliams, K.M.; Tabaczynski, D.A.; Odum, J.K.; Rubin, M.;Eggert, D.L., 1991, Evidence of strong earthquake shaking in the lower Wabash Valley from prehistoric liquefaction features, Science, 51, p. 1060-1063
Obermeier, S.F.; Gopalakrishnan, B.; Shaha, C.; Dirand, M.; Chevallier, V. Provost, E.; Bouroukba, M.; Petitjean, D., 1998, Multicomponent paraffin waxes and petroleum solid deposits: Structural and thermodynamic state, Fuel, 77, p. 1253-1260
Obermeier, S.F.; Pond, E.C., 1999, Issues in using liquefaction features for paleoseismic analysis, Seismological Research Letters, 70, p. 34-58
Obermeier, S.F.; Pond, E.C.; Olson, S.M.; Green, R.A., 2002, Paleoliquefaction studies in continental settings, in Ettensohn, F.R.; Rast, N.; Brett, C.E. (editors), Ancient Seismites, GSA Special Paper, 359, p. 13-27
O'Harra, C.C., 1910, The Badland Formations of the Black Hills Region, The Daily Journal, 152 pgs.
Oldham & Mallet…..
Olsen, P.E.; Schlische, R.W., 1990, Transtensional arm of the early Mesozoic Fundy rift basin: Penecontemporaneous faulting and sedimentation, Geology, 18, p. 695-698
Olson, S.M., 2007, Downward penetrating clastic dikes as indicators of tsunamis? GSA Southeastern Section Abstracts with Programs, 39, p. 25 (#14-5)
Onash, C.M.; Kahle, C.F., ………………..
Oomkens, E., 1966, Environmental significance of sand dikes, Sedimentology, 7, p. 145-148
Overstreet, D.F.; Kolb, M.F., 2002, Geoarchaeological contexts for Late Pleistocene archaeological sites with human-modified woolly mammoth remains in southeastern Wisconsin, U.S.A., Geoarchaeology, 18, p.91-114
Owen, G., 1996, Experimental soft sediment deformation: Structures formed by time, liquefaction of unconsolidated sands, and some ancient examples, Sedimentology, 43, p. 279-293
Owen, G., 1992, A shaking table for experiments on soft sediment deformation, Research Methods Papers, ………., p. 733-734
Owen, G., 1987, Deformation processes in unconsolidated sands, in Jones, M.E.; Preston, M.F. (editors), Deformation of Sediments and Sedimentary Rocks, Geological Society (London) Special Publication, 29, p. 11-24
Panuska, B.C.; Mylroie, J.M.; Armentrout, D.; McFarlane, D., 1998, Magnetorstratigraphy of Cueva del Aleman, Isla del Aleman, Puerto Rico, Journal of Cave and Karst Studies, 60, p. 96-100
Parfenov, L.M; Solovev, V.A.; Borovikov, A.M., 1967, On tectonic terminology, Defense Research Board (Ottawa), Trans. of Geologiya i Geofizika, 9, p. 118-23
Pavlow, A.P., 1906(?), On dikes of Oligocene sandstone in the Neocomian clays of the district of Alatyr, in Russia, Geological Magazine, 3, p. 49-53
Persichetti, J.A.; Alumbaugh, D., 2001, Characterization of clastic dikes using controlled source audio magnetotellurics [abstract], EOS Transactions of the AGU, 82
Peterson, C.D., 1997, Coseismic paleoliquifaction evidence in the central Cascadia margin, USA, Oregon Geology, 59, p. 51-74
Peterson, C.D.; Darienzo, M.E.; Burns, S.F.; Burris, W.K., 1993, Field trip guide to Cascadia paleoseismic evidence along the northern Oregon coast: Evidence of subduction zone seismicity in the central Cascadia margin, Oregon Geology, 55, p. 99-114
Peterson, C.D.; Madin, I.P., 1992, Variation in form and scale of paleoliquefaction structures in late Pleistocene deposits of the central Cascadia margin, GSA Abstracts with Programs, 24, p. 74
Peterson, G.L., 1968, Flow structures in sandstone dikes, Sedimentary Geology, 2, p. 177-190
Peterson, G.L., 1966, Structural interpretation of sandstone dikes, northwest Sacremento Valley, California, GSA Bulletin, 77, p. 833-842
Peterson, G.L., 1965, Internal structure in the sandstone dikes of northwest Sacremento Valley, California (abstract), GSA Special Paper, 87, p. 128
Peterson, G.L., 1965, Emplacement of the northwest Sacremento Valley sandstone dikes, GSA Special Paper, 87, p. 222-223
Pettijohn, F.J.; Potter, P.E., 1964, Atlas and Glossary of Primary Sedimentary Structures, Springer-Verlag (Berlin)
Pewe, T.L., 1959, Sand-wedge polygons (Tesselations) in the MacMurdo Sound region, Anarctica: A projectss report, American Journal of Science, 257, p. 545-552
Pewe, T.L., 1966, Palaeoclimatic significance of fossil ice wedges, Biuletyn Peryglacjalny, 15, p. 65-73
Phillips, C.A.; Alsop, G.I., 2000, Post-tectonic clastic dykes in the Dalradian of Scotland and Ireland: Implications for delayed lithification and deformation of sediments, Geological Journal, 35, p. 99-110
Phoenix, D.A., 1958, Sandstone cylinders as possible guides to paleomovement of groundwater, 9th New Mexico Geological Society Field Conference Guidebook, p. 194-196
Pierce, W.G., 1987, Heart Mountain detachment fault and clastic dikes of fault breccia, and Heart Mountain break-away fault, Wyoming and Montana, GSA Centinnial Field Guide Volume 2, p. 147-154
Pierce, W.G., 1979, Clastic dikes of Heart Mountain fault breccia, northwestern Wyoming, and their significance, U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper, 1133, p. 25 pgs.
Plaziat et al., 1990 (carbonates)
Plessmann, W.; Spaeth, G., 1971, Sedimentgange und tektonisches Schichtfliessen (Biegungsfliessen) im Rechtstrheinischen Schiefergebirge, Geologishe Mitteilungen, 11, p. 137-164
Pogue, K.R., 1998, Earthquake-generated(?) structures in Missoula flood slackwater sediments (Touchet Beds) of southeastern Washington, GSA Abstracts with Programs, 30, p. A-398-A399
Pollock, J.C.; Williams, H., 2000, Clastic dykes in the Dunnage Melange, Halfmoon Bay, northeast Newfoundland, Newfoundland Geological Survey Report, 2000-1, 131-139
Pope, M.C.; Read, J.F.; Bambach, R.K.; Hofmann, H.J., 1997, Late Middle to Late Ordovician seismites of Kentucky, southwest Ohio, and Virginia: Sedimentary recorders of earthquakes in the Appalachian Basin, GSA Bulletin, 109, p. 489-503
Powell, C.M., 1973, Clastic dikes in the Bull Fm of Cambrian age, Taconic Allochthon, Vermont, GSA Bulletin, 84, p. 3045–3050
Powell, C.McA., 1969, Intrusive sandstone dikes in the Siamo Slate near Negaunee, Michigan, GSA Bulletin, 80, p. 2585-2594
Pratt, R.B., 1998, Syneresis cracks: Subaqueous shrinking in argillaceous sediments caused by earthquake-induced dewatering, Sedimentary Geology, 117, p. 1-10
Pratt, T.L., et al., 2003, Amplification of seismic waves by the Seattle Basin, Washington State, Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 93, p. 533-545
Ransome, F.L., 1901, A peculiar clastic dike near Ouray, Colorado, and its associated deposit of silver ore, Transactions for the Society of Mining Engineers of America Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers, p. 227-236
Rasmussen, J.J., 1971, Soil Survey of Benton County, Soil Conservation Service
Reidel, S.P., 2005, Geologic data package for 2005 integrated disposal facility performance assessment, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Report, PNNL-14586 (Contract #DE-AC05-76RL01830), 113 pgs.
Rettallack, G.J., 1997, Early forest soils and their role in Devonian global change, Science, 276, p. 583-585
Reusch, D.N., 2003, ………………, GSA Northeastern Section Abstracts with Programs, Paper #29-2
Ricci Lucchi, F., 1995, Sedimentographica: Photographic Atlas of Sedimentary Structures (2nd Edition), Columbia University Press
Riccomini, C.; Assumpcao, M., 2003, Quaternary tectonics in Brazil, Episodes, 22, p. 221-225
Rijsdijk, K.F.; Owen, G.; Warren, W.P.; McCarroll, D.; van der Meer, J.J.M., 1999, Clastic dykes in over-consolidated tills: Evidence for subglacial hydrofracturing at Killiney Bay, eastern Ireland, Sedimentary Geology, 129, p. 111-126
Ringrose, P.S., 1989, Palaeoseismic (?) liquefaction events in lake sediments at Glen Roy, Scotland, Terra Nova, 1, p. 57-62
Robertson, J.L.; Spencer, P.K., 1993, Stratigraphy and sedimentology of Pre-Late Wisconsin catastrophic glacial flood sediments, western Walla Walla Valley, Washington, GSA Abstracts with Programs, 25, p. 139
Rodriguez-Pascua, M.A.; Calvo, J.P.; DeVicente, G.; Gomez-Gras, …….., Soft-sediment deformation structures interpreted as seismites in lacustrine sediments of the Prebetic Zone, SE Spain, and their potential use as indicators of earthquake magnitudes during the Late Miocene, Sedimentary Geology, 135, p. 117-135
Roep, T.; Everts, J., 1992, Pillow beds: A new type of seismites? An example from an Oligocene turbidite fan complex, Alicante, Spain, Sedimentology, 39, p. 711-724
Ross, P-S.; White, J.D.L., 2005, Unusually large clastic dykes formed by elutriation of a poorly sorted, coarser-grained source, Journal of the Geological Society (London), 162, p. 579-582
Rossetti, D.D.F., 1999, Soft-sediment deformation structures in late Albian to Cenomanian deposits, Sao Luis Basin, northern Brazil: Evidence for paleoseismicity, Sedimentology, 46, p. 1065-1081
Roth, A.A., 1992, Clastic pipes and dikes in Kodachrome Basin, Origins, 19, p. 44-48
Roth, A.A., 1977, Clastic dikes, Origins, 4, p. 53-55
Rowe, C.A., 1999, Clastic dikes as paleoslope indicators in the Nanaimo Group, Hornby Island, British Columbia, University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire Student Research Day Posters, http://www.uwec.edu/Geology/poster/1999.htm
Rowe, C.A.; Mustard, P.S.; Mahoney, J.B.; Katnick, D.C., 2002, Oriented clastic dike swarms as indicators of paleoslope? An example from the Upper Cretaceous Nanaimo Group, Canada, Journal of Sedimentary Research, 72, p. 192-200
Roy, C.J., 1946, Clastic dikes of the Pikes Peak region, GSA Abstracts with Programs, 57, p. 1226
Ruff, S.W.; Greeley, R., 1990, Sinuous ridges of the south polar region, Mars: Possible origins, in Solomon, S.C.; Sharpton, V.L.; Zimbelman, J.R. (editors), Scientific Results of the NASA-Sponsored Study Project on Mars: Evolution of Volcanism, Tectonics, and Volatiles, Lunar and Planetary Institute Technical Report 90-06, 253 pgs.
Russell, I.C., 1893, A geological reconnaissance in central Washington and Idaho, U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin, 108, 108 pgs.
Saito, R., et al., 1954, On stone intrusions in the 2nd coal seam a the Honbets coal mine, Hokkaido (article in Japanese), Bulletin of the Geological Commission(?) of Hokkaido, 26, p. 25-32
Sample, J.C.; Woods, S.; Bender, E.; Loveall, M., 2006, Relationship between deformation bands and petroleum migration in an exhumed reservoir rock, Los Angeles Basin, California, USA, Geofluids, 6, p. 105-112
Saucier, R.T., 1991, Geoarchaeological evidence of strong prehistoric earthquakes in the New Madrid (Missouri) Seismic Zone, Geology, 19, p. 296-298
Saucier, R.T., 1989, Evidence for episodic sand blow activity during the 1811-1812 New Madrid (Missouri) earthquake series, Geology, 17, p. 103-106
Schafer, J.P.; Obermeier, S.F., Stone, J.R., 1987, On the origin of wedge structures in southern New England, GSA Abstracts with Programs, 19, p. 55
Schlische, R.W., 2003, Progress in understanding the structural geology, basin evolution, and tectonic history of the eastern North American rift system (Chapter 4), in LeTourneau, P.M.; Olsen, P.E. (editors), The Great Rift Valleys of Pangea in Eastern North America Volume 1: Tectonics, structure, and volcanism, Columbia University Press
Schoeneberger, P.J.; Wysocki, D.A.; Benham, E.C.; Broderson, W.D. (editors), 2002, Field book for describing and sampling soils (Version 2.0), National Soil Survey Center, USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (Lincoln, NE), p. 2-61 to 2-63
Shrock, R.R., 1948, Sequence in Layered Rocks, McGraw-Hill, 507 pgs.
Scott, B.; Price, S., 1988, Earthquake-induced structure in young sediments, Tectonophysics, 147, p. 165-170
Scott, W.F., 1978, Touchet Beds-Burlingame Canyon Overflow, in Scott, W.F., Potential Landmarks, Geologic Themes on the Columbia Plateau, Report to the U.S. Department of the Interior Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service, p. 249-251
Scott, W.F., 1978, Touchet Beds-Touchet Sand Pit, in Scott, W.F., Potential Landmarks, Geologic Themes on the Columbia Plateau, Report to the U.S. Department of the Interior Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service, p. 252-254
Seeber, L.; Armbruster, J.G., 1981, The 1886 Charleston, South Carolina earthquake and the Appalachian detachment, Journal of Geophysical Research, 86, p. 7874-7894