Bibliography of Clastic Dikes Research

About This Bibliography

This collection of more than 500 citations from published journal articles, government documents, theses, abstracts, web sites, and industry reports accounts for most of the publicly available documents on clastic dikes (e.g. dykes: British, French; diques: Spanish). The list is extensive, not exhaustive. It is a work in progress. Please cite this website. See Wikipedia: Clastic Dike (I edit that page because I'm a dork).

Keywords & Search Terms Used

Basin-trapped seismicity, clastic intrusion/intrusive, clay vein, cyclic stress loading, extra-structural cracks, fissure fills, Hanford Site stratigraphy, interstratal dewatering, lateral spreading, liquefaction features, neptunian/neptunic dike/dyke/fissures, diques neptunicos y brechas sinsedimentarias, paleoseismic indicators, pebble dikes, polygonal patterned ground, pseudo-ice wedge cast, sand blow, sand injectite, sandstone dike/dyke, sedimentary insertion, seismite, sheeted clastic dike/dyke, soft-sediment deformation, soil liquefaction, subsurface-initiated cracks, surface-initiated cracks, synsedimentary filling, tension fractures, Touchet Beds, trans-horizon cracks.

Hypotheses for Clastic Dike Formation

Liquefaction due to shaking, liquefaction without seismicity, water escape/dewatering, cryogenesis, lake water oscillation (seiche effect), rapidly filled reservoir seismicity, basin-trapped wave sloshing, thixotropic behavior, bolide impact, salt dome collapse, gravity fills associated with spaces opened along normal fault ramp relays, etc.

Related Topics Partially Covered

Surge marks, tempestites, pyroclastic fluid escape structures, liquefaction theory & features, load casts, ball-and-pillow structures, convolute bedding, patterned ground, sand blows, sand volcanos, lunar dikes, molar tooth structures, seiche effect, glaciotectonics, vadose zone storage of waste at Hanford tank farms, peperites, pebble dikes (hydrothermal injections), polymict or monomict lithic breccia or microbreccia, pseudotachylites, cataclastites, mylolithenites, impact melt injections (tagamite, granophyre, etc.), thick melt sheets (apophyses), syneresis.

Research Categories Associated with Clastic Dikes

Dikes as paleoseismic indicators

Dikes and associated features as non-seismic features (alternative discussions)

Engineering properties and relationship between dikes and host materials

Dikes and sand injectites as geofluid conduits (petroleum, pollutants, etc.)

Neptunian dikes, concepts of formation (often relating to limestone formations)

Dikes as subglacial deformation features

Impact-related dikes, breccias, and microbreccias

Phreatic, hydrothermal, magmatic, and mineralized dikes and dike-like breccias

Dikes related to the salt dome collapse

Thanks to Information Providers

Washington State Division of Geology and Earth Resources Library, Olympia, WA

Google Scholar Search Engine,

University of British Columbia Libraries, Vancouver, BC

Central Washington University Library, Ellensburg, WA

Eastern Washington University Library, Cheney, WA

Washington State University Libraries, Pullman, WA

Wenatchee Valley College Library, Wenatchee, WA

University of Washington Libraries, Seattle, WA

Whitman College Library, Walla Walla, WA

Gonzaga University Library, Spokane, WA

Washington State Archives, Cheney, WA

Cirque Geoscience Consultants

University of Idaho, Moscow, ID

Summit Library Consortium

GeoRef Database

PNL Hanford

Additions? skyecooley <at>

Bibliography of Clastic Dike Research

Copyright Skye Cooley 2016 Version 12.2011

Acuna, J.A.; Yortsos, Y.C., 1995, Application of fractal geometry to the study of network of fractures and their pressure gradient, Water Resources Research, 31, p. 527-540

Ahlbrandt, T.S.; Harris, R.E., 1975, Clastic dikes in the Fountain Fm and Casper Fm (Permo-Pennsylvanian), southeastern Wyoming, Contributions to Geology (University of Wyoming), 14, p. 51-54

Ahlbrandt, T.S.; Harris, R.E., 1970, Origin of clastic dikes in the Fountain Fm and Casper Formations (Pennsylvanian), southeastern Wyoming, Journal of Sedimentary Research, 40

Alfaro, P.; Moretti, M.; Soria, J.M., 1997, Soft-sediment deformation structures induced by earthquakes (seismites) in Pliocene lacustrine deposits (Guadix-Baza Basin, Central Betic Cordillera), Ecologae Geologicae Helvetiae, 90, p. 531-540

Alfaro, P.; Soria, M., 1998, Soft-sediment deformation structures induced by cyclic stress of storm waves in tempestites (Miocene, Guadalquivir Basin, Spain), Terra Nova, 10, p. 145-150

Allen, C.R., 1975, Geological criteria for evaluating seismicity, GSA Bulletin, 86, p. 1041-1057

Allen, J.R.L., 1961, Sandstone-plugged pipes in the Lower Old Red Sandstone of Shophire, England, Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, 31, p. 325-335

Allen, J.R.L., 1986, Earthquake magnitude-frequency, epicentral distance, and soft sediment deformation in a sedimentary basin, GSA Bulletin, 86, p. 1041-1071

Allen, J.R..L, 1982, Sedimentary Structures: Their character and physical basis Vol. 2, Elsevier (New York)

Allison, I.S., 1933, New version of the Spokane Flood, GSA Bulletin, 44, p. 675-722

Allison, I.S., 1953, Clastic dikes in Quaternary lake sediments in Oregon [abstact], GSA Bulletin, 64, p. 1499-1528

Alwin, J.A.; Scott, W.F., 1970, Clastic dikes of the Touchet Beds, southeastern Washington, Northwest Science, 44, p. 58

Alwin, J.A., 1970, Clastic dikes of the Touchet Beds, southeastern Washington, MS Thesis, Washington State University, 87 pgs.

Amark, M., 1986, Clastic dikes formed beneath an active glacier, Geologiska Foereningen i Stockholm Foerhandlingar, 108, p. 13-20

Anderson, E.M., 1942, The dynamics of faulting and dyke formation, with applications to Britain, Edinburg Oliver Boyd Publishers, 191 pgs.

Anderson, J.L., 1944, Clastic dikes of the Chira and Verdun Formations, northwestern Peru, Journal of Geology, 52, p. 250-263

Andrews, B.J., 2003, Phreatomagmatic formation of polyphase clastic dikes, Moeraki Peninsula, South Island, New Zealand, GSA Abstracts with Programs, Abstract #152-9

Anonymous, 1937, Seismological notes [Walla Walla earthquake], Seismological Society of America Bulletin, 27, p. 139-143

Archer, J.B., 1984, Clastic intrusions in deep-sea fan deposits of the Rosroe Formation, Lower Ordovician, western Ireland, Journal of Sedimentary Geology, 54, p. 1197-1205

Astin, T.M.; Rogers, D.A., 1991, “Subaqueous shrinkage cracks” in the Devonian of Scotland, Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, 61, p. 850-859

Atkinson, G.M.; Liam-Finn, W.D.; Charlwood, R.G., 1984, Simple computation of liquefaction probability for seismic hazard applications, Earthquake Spectra, 1, p. 107-123

Atwater, B. F., 1984, Periodic floods from glacial Lake Missoula in the Sanpoil Arm of Glacial Lake Columbia, northeastern Washington, Geology, 12, p. 464-467

Atwater, B. F., 1986, Pleistocene glacial-lake deposits of the Sanpoil River valley, northeastern Washington, U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin, 1661, 39 pgs.

Atwater, B.F., Musumi-Rokkaku, S., Satake, K., Tsuji, Y., Ueda, K., Yamaguchi, D.K., 2015, The orphan tsunami of 1700—Japanese clues to a parent earthquake in North America (2nd edition), University of Washington Press, USGS Professional Paper 1707, 135 pgs.

Audemard, F.A.; de Santis, F., 1991, Survey of liquefaction structures induced by recent moderate earthquakes, Bulletin of the International Association of Engineering Geology, 44, p. 5-16

Austin, S.A.; Morris, J.D., 1986, Tight fold and clastic dikes as evidence for rapid deposition and deformation of two very thick stratigraphic sequences, Proceedings of the First International Conference on Creationism, p. 3-13

Bahat, D., 1991, Tectono-fractography, Springer (Berlin), 354 pgs………

Baker, V.R.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Busacca, A.J.; Fecht, K.R.; Kiver, E.P.; Moody, U.L.; Rigby, J.G.; Stradling, D.F.; Tallman, A.M., 1991, Chapter 8: Quaternary Geology of the Columbia Plateau, in Morrison, R.B. (editor), The Geology of North America Volume K-2, Quaternary Non-glacial Geology: Conterminous U.S., Geological Society of America, p. 215-247


Ballantyne, C.K.; Harris, 1994, The Periglaciation of Great Britain, Cambridge University Press, 330 pgs.

Ballantyne, H.; Stewart, K.; Bartholomew, M.J., 2004, Laramide paleoseismites in the Clark’s Fork Basin, Montana and Wyoming, GSA Abstracts with Programs, 36, p. 36

Bartholomew, M.J., 2001, Paleoseismites and tectonics of the Deep River Triassic Basin, North Carolina, GSA Southern Section Abstracts with Programs, Abstract #4749

Bartholemew, M.J.; Brodie, B.M.; Willoughby, R.H.; Lewis, S.E.; Syms, F.H., 2002a, Mid-Tertiary paleoseismites: syndepositional features and section restoration used to indicate paleoseismicity, Atlantic Coastal Plain, South Carolina and Georgia, in Ettensohn, F.R.; Rast, N.; Brett, C.E. (editors), Ancient Seismites, GSA Special Paper, 359, p. 63-74

Bartholemew, M.J.; Stickney, M.C.; Wilde, E.M.; Dundas, R.G., 2002b, Late Quaternary paleoseismites: syndepositional features and section restoration used to indicate paleoseismicity and stress field orientations during faulting along the main Lima Reservoir fault, southwestern Montana, in Ettensohn, F.R.; Rast, N.; Brett, C.E. (editors), Ancient Seismites, GSA Special Paper, 359, p. 29-47

Bartholemew, M.J.; Stewart, K.G.; Wise, D.U.; Ballantyne, H.A., 2008, Field Guide: Paleoseismites: Indicators of Laramide tectonism and other events near the Bighorn Basin, Montana and Wyoming, Northwest Geology, 37, p. 135-158

Bateman, M.D., 2008, Luminescence dating of periglacial sediments and structures, Boreas, 37, p. 574-588

Beacom, L.E.; Anderson, T.B.; Holdsworth, R.E., 1999, Using basement-hosted clastic dykes as syn-rift palaeostress indicators; an example from the basal Stoer Group, northwest Scotland, Geological Magazine, 136, p. 301-310

Beavon, R.V., 1998, Archaen neptunian fissures and early history of the Destor-Porcupine fault zone, Timmins, Ontario, Canada, Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 35, p. 1402-1407

Beck, C.; Rochette, P.; Tardy, M., 1992, Interpretation en termes de paleoseismicite de niveaux destructures intercales dans des rythmites lacustres quaternaires des Alpes Nord-Occidentales, Comptus Rendu de l’Academi des Sciences, 315, p. 1525-1532

Best, J.L., 1989, Fluidization pipes in volcaniclastic mass flows, Volcan hudson, Southern Chile, Terra Nova, 1, p. 203-208

Beutner, E.C.; Jancin, M.D.; Simon, R.W., 1977, Dewatering origin of cleavage in light of deformed calcite veins and clastic dikes in Martinsburg Slate, Delaware water gap, New Jersey, Geology, 5, p. 118-122

Bhattacharya, H.N.; Bandyopadhyay, S., 1998, Seismites in a Proterozoic tidal succession, Singhbhum, Birhar, India, Sedimentary Geology, 119, p. 239-252

Bielenstein, H.U.; Charlesworth, H.A.K., 1965, Precambrian sandstone sills near Jasper, Alberta, Canadian Petroleum Geological Bulletin, 13, p. 405-408

Birman, J.H., 1952, Pleistocene clastic dikes in weathered granite-gneiss, Rhode Island, American Journal of Science, 250, p. 721-734

Bjornstad, B.N., 1980, Sedimentology and depositional environment of the Touchet Beds, Walla Walla River basin, Washington, MS Thesis, Eastern Washington University, 83 pgs.

Bjornstad, B.N., 1980, Sedimentology and depositional environment of the Touchet Beds, Walla Walla River basin, Washington, Rockwell Hanford Report #RHO-BWI-SA-44, 83 pgs.

Bjornstad, B.N., 1982, Catastrophic flood surging represented in the Touchet Beds of the Walla Walla River Valley, Washington, American Quaternary Association Abstracts with Programs (Seattle, WA), p. 72

Bjornstad, B.N.; Cadoret, N.A., 1997, Geology and geomorphology in the vicinity of Locke Island, Hanford Site, Washington, Northwest Anthropological Conference Abstracts with Programs (Ellensburg, WA), p. 26-27

Bjornstad, B.N.; Fecht, K.R., 1989, Pre-Wisconsin glacial-outburst floods: Pedogenic and paleomagnetic evidence from the Pasco Basin and adjacent Channeled Scabland, GSA Cordilleran/Rocky Mountain Section Abstracts with Programs (Spokane, WA), 21, p. 58

Bjornstad, B.N.; Fecht, K.R.; Pluhar, C.J., 2001, Long history of Pre-Wisconsin, Ice Age cataclysmic floods: Evidence from southeastern Washington State, Journal of Geology, 109, p. 695–713

Bjornstad, B.N., Last, G.V., Horton, D.G., 2003, Hydrogeology of the Hanford Site vadose zone, GSA Abstracts with Programs, 35, p. 530 (#210-3)

Bjornstad, B.N.; Murray, C.J.; Steefel, C.I., 1994, Physical and chemical heterogeneity within cataclysmic deposits, south-central Washington, GSA Abstracts with Programs, 26, p. A-68

Bjornstad, B.N.; Teel, S.S., 1993, Natural analog study of engineered protective barriers at the Hanford Site, Pacific Northwest Lab Report #PNL-8840, 50 pgs.

Black, R.F., 1983, Pseudo-ice wedge casts of Connecticut, northeastern United States, Quaternary Research, 20, p. 74-89

Black, R.F., 1979, Clastic dikes of the Pasco Basin, southeastern Washington, Rockwell Hanford Operations Report, RHO-BWI-C-64, 65 pgs.

Black, R.F., 1976, Periglacial features indicative of permafrost: Ice and soil wedges, Quaternary Research, 6, p. 74-89

Boehm, A.; Moore, J.C., 2002, Fluidized sandstone intrusions as an indicator of paleostress orientation, Santa Cruz, California, Geofluids, 2, p. 147

Borchardt, G.; Mace, N., 1992, Clastic dike as evidence for a major earthquake along the northern Hayward fault in Berkeley, in Borchardt, G.; Hirschfeld, S.E.; Lienkaemper, J.J.; McClellan, P.; Williams, P.L.; Wong, I.G., (Editors), Proceedings of the Second Conference on Earthquake Hazards in the Eastern San Francisco Bay Area, California Department of Conservation, Division of Mines and Geology Special Publication 113, p. 143-151

Borradaile, G.J., 1984, A note on sand dike orientations, Journal of Structural Geology, 6, p. 587-588

Borradaile, G.J., 1977, Compaction estimate limits from deformed sand dykes, Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, 47, p. 1598-1601

Borradaile, G.J., 1977, On cleavage and strain: Results of a study in West Germany using tectonically deformed sand dykes, Journal of the Geological Society (London), 133, p. 146-164

Boulter, C.A., 1974, Tectonic deformation of soft sedimentary clastic dikes from the Precambrian rocks of Tasmania, Australia, with particular reference to their relation with cleavages, GSA Bulletin, 85, p. 1413-1420

Bourgeois, J.; Johnson, S.Y., 2001, Geologic evidence of earthquakes at the Snohomish Delta, Washington, in the past 1200 yr, GSA Bulletin, 113, p. 482-494

Breckenridge, R.M. (editor), 1989, Glacial Lake Missoula and the Channeled Scabland, Field Trip Guidebook T310 for the 28th International Geological Congress, 72 pgs.

Breckenridge, R.M.; Othberg, K.L.; Weisz, D.W.; Meyer, S.E.; Gaylord, D.R., 1999, The use of paleomagnetic analysis to discriminate post-depositional deformation; An example from Missoula flood deposits, GSA Abstracts with Programs, 31, p. 5

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Brown, B.H., 1937, The state line earthquake at Milton and Walla Walla, Northwest Science, 11, p. 62-64

Brown, B.H., 1937, The State-Line earthquake at Milton and Walla, Seismological Society of America Bulletin, p. 205-209

Brown, D.J.; Brown, R.E., 1962, Touchet clastic dikes in the Ringold Fm, Hanford Operations Report, HW-SA-2851, p. 1-11

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Christiansen, F.W., 1952, Slump structures and associated "clastic intrusions" in Upper Jurassic sediments, Kane and Garfield Counties, Utah, GSA Bulletin, 63, p. 1359

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Cooley, S.W., 2008, Clastic Dikes: Climatic indicators of climate during late-glacial Missoula flooding? GSA Abstracts with Programs, 40, p. 242

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Cooley, S.W.; Pidduck, B.K.; Pogue, K.R., 1995, Mechanism and timing of emplacement of clastic dikes in the Touchet Beds of the Walla Walla Valley, GSA Cordilleran Section Abstracts with Programs, 28, p. 57

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Decker, P.L., 1990, Style and Mechanics of Liquefaction-related Deformation, Lower Absoroka Volcanic Supergroup (Eocene), Wyoming, GSA Special Paper, 240, 71 pgs.

Demoulin, A., 1996, Clastic dykes in East Belgium; evidence for upper Pleistocene strong earthquakes west of the Lower Rhine rift segment, Journal of the Geological Society, 153, p. 803-810

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Diggs, T.N., 1989, Sedimentology and structural geology of the Housetop Mountains/Castle Mountain Area, Marathon Basin, Trans-Pecos Texas, MA Thesis (#D569), University of Texas

Diller, J.S., 1890, Sandstone dikes, GSA Bulletin, 1, p. 411-442

Dionne, J.C.; Shilts, W.W., 1974, A Pleistocene clastic dike, Upper Chaudière Valley, Québec, Canadian Journal Earth Sciences, 11, p. 1594-1605

Dionne, J.C., 1973, Structures cylindriques verticales dans le Quaternaire a Arthabaska, Quebec, Sedimentary Geology, 9, p. 53-63

Dixon, R.J.; Schofiled, K.; Anderton, R.; Reynolds, A.D.; Alexander, R.W.S.; Williams, M.C.; Davies, K.G., 1995, Sandstone diapirism and clastic intrusion in the Tertiary submarine fans of the Bruce-Beryl Embayment, quadrant 9, UKCS, in Hartley, A.J.; Prosser, D.J., Characterization of Deep Marine Clastic Systems, Geological Society Special Publication (London), p. 77-94

Dobie, J., 1926, The “Clastic Dike” at Pullman, BS Thesis, Washington State University

Doig, R., 1991, Effects of strong seismic shaking in lake sediments, and earthquake recurrence interval, Temiscaming, Quebec, Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 28, p. 1349-52

Doig et al. 1993

Doty, G.; Rush, F.E., 1985, Inflow to a crack in playa deposits of Yucca Lake, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada,U.S. Geological Survey Water Resource Investigation Report, 84-4296, 24 pgs.

Drahovzal, J.A.; Hendricks, R.T., 1996, Geologic features relevant to ground-water flow in the vicinity of the Paducah gaseous diffusion plant, Final Report to Facilities Oversight Unit, Kentucky Geological Survey/University of Kentucky Report, 36 pgs. + maps, photos

Dreimanis, A., 1969

Dreimanis, A,; Rappol, M., 1997, Late Wisconsinan sub-glacial clastic intrusive sheets along the Lake Erie bluffs, at Bradtville, Ontario, Canada, Sedimentary Geology, 111, p. 225-248

Dreimanis, A., 1992, Downward injected till wedges and upward injected till dikes, Sveriges Geologiska Undersökning, 4, p. 91-96

Duck, R.W.; Herber, R.A., 2006, High-resolution shallow seismic identification of gas escape features in the sediments of Loch Tay, Scotland: Tectonic and microbiological associations, Sedimentology, 53, p. 481-493

Duncan, J.R., 1964, Structural significance of clastic dikes in a selected exposure of the Modelo Fm, Santa Monica Mountains, California, Southern California Academy of Sciences Bulletin, 63, p. 157-163

Duranti, D.; Hurst, A., 2004, Fluidization and injection in the deep-water sandstones of the Eocene Alba Fm (UK North Sea), Sedimentology, 51, p. 503

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